This chapter focuses on the exploitation of consumers’ loss aversion by suppliers. One example is the effect of different framings of price and other attributes on consumer decisions (for example, cash discounts versus surcharges for credit). The chapter also examines how the limited availability of goods influences purchase decisions. It argues that escalation of commitment is one explanation for consumers’ failure to read standard-form contracts, and for the effectiveness of “low ball” and “bait-and-switch” marketing techniques. It explains why liberal return policies are a double-edged sword, given customers’ endowment effect. Finally, it draws attention to how suppliers exploit consumers’ status quo and omission biases to the suppliers’ advantage.
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