This chapter presents an overview of the book's argument and narrative. It argues that social movements theory and standard legal civil rights history have failed to fully account for the work of the generation of national racial justice activists whose efforts preceded the founding of the NAACP and the National Urban League. Despite the extremely adverse political and social conditions this generation of activists encountered, they persisted in developing and improving strategies for racial justice activism that provided the founding platforms for the NAACP and the National Urban League at their beginnings in the early twentieth century.
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