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Stalin and EuropeImitation and Domination, 1928-1953$
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Timothy Snyder and Ray Brandon

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199945566

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945566.001.0001

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Violence, Flight, and Hunger

Violence, Flight, and Hunger

The Sino-Kazakh Border and the Kazakh Famine

Chapter:
(p.44) 2 Violence, Flight, and Hunger
Source:
Stalin and Europe
Author(s):

Sarah Cameron

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945566.003.0003

In 1928, Stalin launched a series of brutal modernization programs in Kazakhstan. During this upheaval, more than 200,000 people fled Kazakhstan to Xinjiang, a strategic, Muslim-majority province in neighboring China. The Soviet regime employed excessive violence to stem the flow of refugees. As widespread famine engulfed Kazakshtan in 1930, the Soviet border patrols shot and killed thousands of desperate refugees seeking to cross into China. This violence disrupted the ties between Xinjiang and Kazakhstan and increased tensions between the Soviet Union and the Republic of China.

Keywords:   Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, imperialism, First Five-Year Plan, sedentarization, collectivization, famine, terror, China, Japan

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