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Representing the Good NeighborMusic, Difference, and the Pan American Dream$
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Carol A. Hess

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199919994

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919994.001.0001

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The Roots of Musical Pan Americanism

The Roots of Musical Pan Americanism

Chapter:
(p.14) 1 The Roots of Musical Pan Americanism
Source:
Representing the Good Neighbor
Author(s):

Carol A. Hess

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919994.003.0001

This chapter surveys north-south relations apropos the 1891 essay Nuestra América (Our America) by the Cuban patriot José Martí, who defended a broader, more equitable concept of “America” and rejected the social Darwinist roots of late nineteenth-century Pan Americanism, and apropos U.S. political and commercial interventionism in Latin America. Just as incensed as Martí was the Uruguayan writer José Enrique Rodó, whose widely read essay Ariel of 1900 compared the muscle and materialism of the United States to Caliban, the formless monster of Shakespeare’s Tempest. The Great War, however, prompted U.S. intellectuals such as Waldo Frank to reject European culture and look south. U.S. composers, then debating the identity of “American” music, idealized the South, with many believing that the North should imbibe its values and thus erase difference vaunted in the political sphere. Thus the premises of Martí’s “our America” were ripe for testing in musical circles north and south.

Keywords:   arielismo, social Darwinism in the United States, dollar diplomacy, stereotypes of Hispanics in Hollywood, Black Legend, World War I and Pan Americanism, Rockefellers and Latin America, “Spanish tinge”, American musical identity

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