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The Diversity Paradox
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The Diversity Paradox: Parties, Legislatures, and the Organizational Foundations of Representation in America

Kristin Kanthak and George Krause


“From the Iraqi Parliament to the U.S. House of Representatives, policymakers and scholars alike have long argued that it is critical that the composition of elected assemblies represent the diversity of the broader polity. This book proffers the claim that increases in minority group representation in political parties result in poorer treatment of minority group members by both their majority group counterparts and fellow minority group members. This condition, referred to as “asymmetric tokenism”, undermines the link between descriptive and substantive forms of representation. Yet this cond ... More

Keywords: diversity, group dynamics, representation, minority groups, legislatures, political organizations, tokenism, descriptive representation, substantive representation, coordination problems

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780199891726
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199891726.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Kristin Kanthak, author
University of Pittsburgh

George Krause, author
University of Pittsburgh