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Holy War in JudaismThe Fall and Rise of a Controversial Idea$
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Reuven Firestone

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199860302

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199860302.001.0001

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The Crisis of Modernity and Jewish Responses

The Crisis of Modernity and Jewish Responses

Chapter:
(p.141) Chapter 9 The Crisis of Modernity and Jewish Responses
Source:
Holy War in Judaism
Author(s):

Reuven Firestone

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199860302.003.0010

Modernity represented a crisis for Jewish continuity since it effectively challenged the authority of the tradition that had served as the glue holding most of the Jewish people together for nearly two millennia. Traditional Jewish identities in the European milieu were replaced in the religious spectrum by Reform, Conservative, neo-Orthodox and ultra-Orthodox Judaism, and in the secular spectrum by the Jewish “enlightenment” (haskalah), various political movements, and Jewish nationalisms including Zionism. For most Jews the old paradigms were re-evaluated and often rejected, and emerging Zionism began to challenge the rabbinic instruments that had hitherto prevented mass immigration of Jews to the Land of Israel. Thus erupted a conflict among religious Jews as to whether or not Zionism was an acceptable Jewish movement. Most religious (or Orthodox) Jews rejected Zionism, while a stalwart few were active in what was becoming a largely secular Jewish national movement to return Jews to the Land of Israel and develop it.

Keywords:   Reform, orthodoxy, Haskalah, Zionism, Enlightenment, Nationalism, Herzl, Pale of Settlement, Jacob Reines, Mizrachi, Hapoel Hamizrachi

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