Brazil provides an additional test of the regime-type argument—it has changed regime type three times since 1930. But only one of these—the 1964 shift to autocracy—predicted a change in education. Instead, education changed with Brazil’s vital constituency. Brazil’s federal government was affiliated with a political entrepreneur from 1930 to 1964; and political entrepreneurship was gradually returning at the state level in the 1990s, though it would not reach the federal level until 2003. In line with the book’s framework, this chapter shows Brazilian education changing from an all-levels system to a top-down system after 1964, and the beginnings of a change back to an all-levels system in the 1990s. Throughout, employers needed skilled workers but faced inelastic skilled wages, and the government therefore provided selective worker training. The chapter also applies the book’s framework to education in two states: the wealthiest, São Paulo; and one of the poorest, Bahia.
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