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Unlocking the BrainVolume 1: Coding$
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Georg Northoff

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199826988

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826988.001.0001

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Predictive Coding and Social and Vegetative Statistics

Predictive Coding and Social and Vegetative Statistics

(p.161) Chapter 8 Predictive Coding and Social and Vegetative Statistics
Unlocking the Brain

Georg Northoff

Oxford University Press

The chapter proposes that the three different statistics, social, vegetative, and natural, are matched and compared with each other; this results in what the theory of predictive coding describes as actual input (and ultimately as prediction error); that is, the neural activity change in the reward system during value assignment. Such prediction error as the matching and comparison between different stimuli and their respective statistics is possible, however, only on the basis of coding the differences between the different stimuli—that is, difference-based coding—rather than coding the stimuli themselves, or stimulus-based coding. Hence, the example of reward again demonstrates predictive coding to presuppose difference-based coding. Furthermore, the discussion of reward shows that the concept of the prediction error and more specifically the concept of the actual input needs to be specified (and elaborated) by the matching and comparison between different statistics: natural, social, and vegetative.

Keywords:   reward, predictive coding, neuroeconomics, social statistics, interoception, vegetative statistics, framing effects, prediction error

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