This chapter surveys the spectrum of positions adopted by Middle Eastern countries toward the responsibility to protect (RtoP) and offers an explanation for why these policies were espoused and how they developed as the RtoP advanced to the forefront of the international diplomatic agenda. The chapter is divided into three parts. Part I defines the Middle East and the territories that are considered within the region. It also highlights the salient historic, geographic, and political features of the region that influenced policies regarding the RtoP. Part II surveys the positions of the Middle Eastern countries as the international community debated the notion of intervention to prevent or halt gross violations of human rights. It charts the development of Middle Eastern positions as the global debate on the RtoP progressed and it also identifies the main factors that influenced the policies of regional players. Part III examines the applicability of the RtoP to the Occupied Palestinian Territories, which illustrates one among the leading issues currently affecting regional attitudes towards the RtoP. Part IV briefly analyzes the international response to the popular revolt against Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, and the question of the applicability of the RtoP to the Libyan case.
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