The Evolution of Jurisdiction over Foreigners in Japan from the “Expulsion Edict” to the Sino-Japanese Treaty of Tianjin
Chapter 4 explores the evolution of jurisdiction over foreigners in Japan from the promulgation of the “Expulsion Edict” in 1825 through the conclusion of the Sino-Japanese Treaty of Tianjin in 1871, a neglected chapter in Sino-Japanese relations. The extraterritorial arrangements in the “Ansei Treaties,” which Japan concluded with Western powers 1854-58, are compared with the corresponding arrangements in the Sino-Japanese “Treaty of Tianjin.” The extraterritorial arrangements in the Treaty of Tianjin were informed by the Chinese experience of consular jurisdiction in the treaty ports, which stood in sharp contrast to the lack of reciprocity in the Qing Empire’s relations with the Western treaty powers. Since there were far more Chinese in Japan than there were Japanese in China prior to 1895, the Treaty of Tianjin had a much greater impact in Japan than it had in China.
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