The Chinese “Unequal Treaties”
This chapter charts the evolution of jurisdiction over foreigners in Qing China from the late nineteenth century through the Sino-British “Chefoo Convention” of 1876, which was the last British treaty to deal with extraterritoriality to any large extent before the turn of the century. Prior to the Opium War, the Qing Empire granted foreigners far more legal autonomy than the contemporary Ottoman Empire did under the “Capitulations,” a series of treaties between the Sublime Porte and Western nations, which were concluded from the sixteenth through the early nineteenth centuries.
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