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Psychology of ScienceImplicit and Explicit Processes$
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Robert W. Proctor and E.J. Capaldi

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199753628

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.001.0001

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Methodological Approaches to Scientific and Technological Thinking

Methodological Approaches to Scientific and Technological Thinking

(p.57) 3 Methodological Approaches to Scientific and Technological Thinking
Psychology of Science

Michael E. Gorman

Oxford University Press

This chapter provides a taxonomy of the methodological approaches psychologists have taken to studying scientific and technological thinking, based on an analogy to biological methods, including in vitro studies of nonscientists working on simulations of science and in vivo studies of scientists working in their laboratories. Tacit knowledge is incorporated into the taxonomy. Scholars in science and technology studies have discovered a new category of expertise which they refer to as interactional, or the ability to talk like a member of a particular scientific community without being able to do the research. Interactional expertise is a topic that should be explored by psychologists of science; the chapter describes how. The chapter ends by considering what it would take to make psychology of science into a field, and whether that is desirable.

Keywords:   scientific thinking, technological thinking, biological methods, in vitro studies, in vivo studies, tacit knowledge, taxonomy of methods, scientific communities

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