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Psychology of ScienceImplicit and Explicit Processes$
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Robert W. Proctor and E.J. Capaldi

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199753628

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.001.0001

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Scientists Are Human

Scientists Are Human

Implicit Cognition and Researcher Conflict of Interest

(p.255) 11 Scientists Are Human
Psychology of Science

Anthony G. Greenwald

Oxford University Press

Scientists have conflicts of interest that, operating outside of awareness, cause them to inappropriately favor their preferred theories and disfavor competitors' theories. These conflicts of interest can be traced to implicit affective-cognitive processes that have only recently been described theoretically and empirically. They threaten objectivity in performance of four types of scientific roles: gatekeepers, reviewers, expert witnesses, and researchers. Eliminating the undesired effects of these conflicts of interest may require development of ethical codes that specify satisfactory conflict-management strategies.

Keywords:   conflict of interest, implicit processes, gatekeepers, reviewers, expert witnesses, researchers, ethical codes, conflict-management

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