This chapter reviews the history and definition of countertransference, as well as empirical research on countertransference, its management, and the relation of both to psychotherapy outcome. Three meta-analyses are presented as are select studies that illustrate findings from the meta-analyses. Conclusions are that countertransference reactions are related inversely and modestly to psychotherapy outcome, particular therapist qualities and practices are associated with effective countertransference management, and managing countertransference successfully is related to better therapy outcomes. This chapter concludes by summarizing the limitations of the research base and by highlighting the therapeutic practices predicated on that research.
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