This concluding chapter argues that the collusion of online factors including growth, content, networking, online social entrepreneurship with the political catalyst of election falsification marked a new era in political communication in Russia. This has shifted the role of the internet, in the eyes of the public and the leaders alike, from a marginal arena for malcontents into an important source of political information and aggregation. The evidence is not only through the tens of thousands of people who attended rallies in Russian cities in the winter of 2011–12, demonstrations that would have been impossible without the informative and organizational role of the internet. The proof also is in the rising evidence of critical political content and community in the online sphere. As citizens learn about empowerment through activity spurred by the online sphere, they are learning how to seek more rights in their society.
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