This chapter discusses the contingent forces that support the bond between patrons and clients. It takes a look at interstate agreements that were formed in the guise of patron-client ties, which were similar to those of domestic patrimonial politics. It shows the vulnerabilities of a ruler’s additional ties with outer clients and the effects of multipolar state relations. This chapter also considers the Sui-Tang and Turko-Mongol monarchs’ search to retain the loyalty of client chiefs.
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