Replication of findings is critical and central to science. When similar or even identical experiments are carried out, the results are expected to be compatible and consistent. When they are not, the experiments are deemed unreliable and hypotheses are weakened. Thus, beyond the Convergent 3 and Eliminative Inference Analyses introduced in previous chapters, hypotheses must also pass Consistency Analyses. This type of analysis can be carried out for a singular series of experiments, or for a large number of experiments addressing a key hypothesis, such as the role of synaptic mechanisms in memory. This chapter uses the complex history of neuroscience studies of learning and memory to illustrate some surprising features of Consistency Analyses.
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