Analysis of Texts: A Summation
The Conclusion weighs the evidence and assess when, how, and why scholars in the classical and medieval periods — exegetes,hadīth specialists and historians — increasingly chose to privilege a monovalent, belligerent interpretation of jihād roughly from the late second/eighth century on, which in turn instigated counter-narratives which foregrounded and praised its non-militant aspects. The historical and political motivations propelling these developments are reconstructed and the extent to which this broadens and nuances current perspectives on jihād are indicated. This chapter concludes by observing that the literatures extolling the excellences (fadā’il) of military combat and of patient forbearance in particular often encode a number of these concerns in a consciously vaunting manner, creating competing paradigms of piety while invoking, co-opting, and reworking the common idioms -- Qur’anic and otherwise -- of jihād and martyrdom broadly construed.
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