Chapter 8 considers the implications of the present analysis for the regulation and conduct of nonbeneficial pediatric research. It points out that while making a contribution can be in one's interests, making passive contributions to even very valuable projects has only minimal significance for one's personal interests. This suggests that passive contributions can justify only very low risks. When the children are older and able to make a more active contribution this possibility increases the extent to which participating in valuable research can be in their interests, hence, can justify greater risks. The chapter argues that these considerations provide a reason to use two different risk thresholds for nonbeneficial pediatric research, one for younger children who make largely passive contributions and a higher threshold for older children who can make more active contributions.
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