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Manifest MadnessMental Incapacity in the Criminal Law$

Arlie Loughnan

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199698592

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698592.001.0001

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(p.275) Index

(p.275) Index

Source:
Manifest Madness
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abnormality
automatism and27
criminal responsibility and244
dangerousness and26–7, 29, 35
difference and23–4, 34–5, 39
diminished responsibility and27–8, 233–4, 251
gendered idea of57
infancy as30
infanticide as208
insanity as26–7
intoxication and199
label of25
moralized idea of116
‘normality’ versus6, 157
notion of6, 11, 16, 20–1, 56
unfitness to plead and29
affective conditions, see psychiatric conditions
Alderson, Baron77
Allen, Hillary32, 220
Alness, Lord231
Alverstone, Lord81 n.74
Archard, David94 n.142
Ashworth, Andrew127, 258
Atkin Committee on Insanity and Crime85, 123, 232 n.33
Auld Report98–9
automatism, doctrine of
abnormality and27
burden of proof163
dangerousness and133
definition126–7, 129 n.133
development of discrete doctrine122–5
disposal power, possibility of119 n.84, 167
empirical profile of168
evidence and procedure governing159–70
exculpatory, doctrine as27, 103–35, 158, 161
external cause128–31
general verdict165–7
informal claims108–9
insane/non-insane103, 124
insanity and103, 109–13
intoxication, caused by131
label of124
moral-evaluative aspect132–3
non-insane119 n.86
presumption of mental capacity160–1
‘prior fault’131–3
prototypical cases108
raising162–3
reform of167
requirements of125–33
self-control54
self-induced124, 131
total destruction of voluntary control126–8
tripartite construction56, 104
unconsciousness115, 127
voluntariness122 see also disability; insanity; medical conditions
Ball, C.88 n.112
Beattie, J. M.106 n.15, 206 n.26
Bennion, Francis91 n.129
Bentley, Michael44
Birkenhead, Lord122 n.103, 175 n.5, 185, 216 n.80
Butler Committee83–4, 87 n.107, 95 n.145, 117 n.71, 125, 130, 133 n.157, 156 n.104, 158 n.113, 167 n.153, 200, 219 n.95, 235 n.44, 241 n.74, 245–6
Byrne, Justice83 n.79
capital punishment5, 79, 85, 125, 232–3 see also Royal Commission on Capital Punishment
children
adultification of youth justice91–2
age of criminal responsibility3, 30 n.47, 67–70, 78, 88–9, 91–2
anti-social behaviour orders92
‘bastard’ child/children203–8
birth and postnatal issues: breastfeeding/lactation29, 57, 62, 217, 219–20, 223
childbirth15, 29, 62, 203, 217, 219–20, 223
matrons, juries of138
medical practitioners of211
motherhood203
‘phrenzy’208, 211
puerperal insanity/psychosis210, 214
registration of birth70
reproductive health214
specialist knowledge about211–12
stress related to208, 214
child defendants63, 69–70, 78
childhood:
constructions of91
crimes56–7, 94
developmental psychology and94 n.142
expert knowledge of91
incapacity and80–1
offending57, 91, 93–4
sentimentalization of80
social attitudes and beliefs about94
social meaning of80, 91–2
Victorian80 n.70
(p.276) court system for juveniles79
crimes committed by56–7, 94
dangerousness of young offenders91
European Court of Human Rights and101
‘good and evil’, knowledge of74, 90
illegitimate203–8
imprisonment of78
juvenile delinquency78, 80
offending by93–4
politicization of child offending91
poverty and children’s crimes78–9
puberty, physical process of70 n.14
punishment of78–9
punitive approaches to91
reformatories80
sentencing for89
special status granted to57, 78, 94
mercy69
rehabilitation of young offenders88
‘right and wrong’, knowledge of78
young children:
as abnormal30
as defendants69
social position of69
welfare approach to young offenders88, 91, 93 see also gender; infanticide; infancy
Coleridge, Justice182
Colvin, Eric23
Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC)245 n.88
Criminal Law Revision Committee (CLRC)200 n.140, 222 n.109, 235 n.44, 241 n.74, 245–6
criminal responsibility33, 50–1, 108, 125
abstract structure of7
age of, see children
attribution of3, 18, 51
capacity-based45
changes in the principles of37 n.79, 41 n.4
character-based51
denials of8, 18–19
fault, concept of60, 144
individual6, 7, 42 n.8, 45
intoxication and177, 185
‘mental responsibility’233, 237, 239–40, 244, 249 n.102, 250 n.105
non-responsibility4–5, 7–8, 33, 51, 56, 62, 115, 150, 220
ordinary principle of34
outcome-based45
partial7, 51, 56–7, 62, 177 n.20, 219–20, 224, 231
personal responsibility, legal significance of35, 80, 116, 215
structures of204
time and50–1 see also liability
Cross, Rupert110 n.39
Dawson of Penn, Lord217
Dear, Peter139
Deas, Lord229–30
defence
categorizations of18
by function20–2
by normative type18–19
vs denials of responsibility19
excuse defences21
label of17–20
self-defence18, 20, 96 n.150, 162, 164, 238
Denning, Lord118–19, 128, 156–7, 160, 162, 185 n.73, 196 n.124
Dennis, Ian165 n.144
Devlin, Lord Justice27, 83 n.79, 117–19, 131, 157, 162, 163
diminished responsibility
abnormality and27–8, 233–4, 251
‘abnormality of mind’236–7, 243–4
actus reus of245
aetiology, tripartite239–40
boundaries of251
burden of proof233, 246
Byrne decision, effect of236–7
causation244
character, considerations of230
conceptual basis of228
criminal fault and230–1
critique of253–4
culpable homicide228–9
current doctrine of235–45
abnormality of mental functioning235–8, 242–5, 255
explanation of D’s act242–5
nature of the conduct, understanding the240–2
rational judgment240–2
recognised medical
condition, a238–40, 251
substantially impaired ability240–2
decision-making in relation to245–53, 256
difference and56 n.63, 253–8
evidence and procedure governing238–40, 249–51
as exculpatory doctrine31, 256
as excuse31
partial excuse253–5
expert knowledge245–53
gender bias and251–2
as inculpatory doctrine31, 256
infanticide and220–1
insanity law, compared228, 231, 249, 254
intoxication and175, 179, 194, 239–40, 249
introduction of, in England and Wales232–5, 248
Janus-faced32, 226
lay evaluation of247–50
Lord Deas, view of229–30
(p.277) ‘loss of control’ and254, 256
M’Naghten insanity and226, 232–4, 236–8
mens rea and245, 257
‘mental responsibility’233, 237, 239–40, 244, 249 n.102, 250 n.105
‘mercy killers’242, 250 n.107
murder and234, 238, 245, 250, 255
‘normal immaturity’30 n.50
‘optional defence’ status245–6
practical operation of247, 250
professional actors245–53
provocation and28 n.39, 252, 254–8
‘quality of the act’ and232, 256
raising245–6
scope of231, 240, 244, 250
Scottish:
concept of230
development of227–32
origins of226, 228–9
self-control and256–8
sentencing practices228–30
statutory provision54
substantial impairment241–2, 244, 249
successful use of252
volitional incapacity117, 237–8
Diplock, Lord26, 30, 111, 127 n.123, 188 n.85
disability
basis for insanity, rise of122–5
excuses8, 21–5, 31 n.54, 37
incapacity and14, 103–35
learning101
disposal84–5, 110–11, 167–70
doli incapax, see infancy
Dubber, Markus Dirk10
Duff, Antony6 n.4, 8 n.10, 18–19, 46 n.20, 71, 76 n.43, 83, 97 n.157, 138, 149
Edmund-Davies, Lord131 n.148, 183 n.58, 187–8, 190 n.95, 199
Eigen, Joel113, 115 n.64, 137, 145, 178, 210, 211 n.57
Ellenborough, Lord209
Elliot, I. D.161 n.124
Elwyn-Jones, Lord31, 183 n.58, 187–9, 196 n.122, 199
Erle, Justice78
European Convention on Human Rights96, 100 n.170
European Court of Human Rights85 n.99, 93 n.140, 101
exculpation3
definition7
exculpatory mental incapacity doctrines26–9, 62
mental incapacity as a basis of7–9
mode/technique of22–3
excuse(s)
defence21
diminished responsibility31–2, 253
‘disability excuse’8, 21–5, 31 n.54, 37
excusing conditions24
mistake21–2
partial255 n.135
reasonableness requirement36 n.73
‘status excuse’30 n.51, 75 n.37
Farmer, Lindsay10, 36, 50, 52 n.44, 149 n.73, 228, 230–1
fault, concept of60, 144
Fingarette, Herbert254
Fitzjames Stephens, James12
Fletcher, George19 n.9, 51–3, 58–9, 108 n.27, 140 n.22, 165–6, 205
Foucault, Michel40 n.1, 58
Fuller, Steve198
Gardner, John18 n.7, 35
Garland, David124 n.110
gender
abnormality and57, 202–3, 215
crime and202–25
diminished responsibility and251–2
feminist theory29, 202, 212 n.62, 220
‘infanticidal type’/woman15, 28, 35, 57, 203, 214–16, 218–19, 225
‘lewd’ women203–8
‘madness’ and202–25
meanings associated with215–16
reproductive practices29, 214
Victorian gender constructions214 see also children; infanticide
Giddens, Antony47, 58 n.67, 159
Goddard CJ, Lord121
Gordon, Gerald227–8, 231 n.29
Gough, Stephen186 n.74
Griew, Edward238 n.60, 250 n.105, 253–4
Grubin, Don86
Hacking, Ian152 n.85
Hailsham, Lord173 n.1, 197
Hale, Matthew12, 70, 73–4, 106, 175, 192–3
Heald Committee233
Hewart, Lord123 n.107
Ho, H. L.160 n.118
Hoffman, Lord257
Holroyd, Justice182
Home Office, the (United Kingdom)
discretion of84 n.92, 87 n.109, 154
Horder, Jeremy19 n.10
Hörnle, Tatjana35
Hutton, Lord96 n.150, 239 n.65
(p.278) imputation
intoxication as doctrine of14 n.25, 30–1, 195 see also intoxication
incapacity,see disability; mental incapacity
inculpation31
diminished responsibility and31–2
infanticide and32 see also diminished responsibility; infanticide
infancy
as abnormality30
conceptual interdependency:
with insanity72–5
with unfitness to plead68
dangerousness and disposal78–81
doli incapax:
abolition of92–4
criticism of92 n.135, 93
defence of90
presumption of69, 90–1
dynamic of exclusion, rise of92–4,
dynamic of inclusion68, 75, 78–81, 88–92, 102
due process and29
fairness and special treatment88–92
formalization of43, 68, 75–102
mercy, role of in criminal process69–72
mixed approaches to92
political and social overtones68
special procedures for91
substantive criminal law:
connection to72–5
symbolic significance102 see also children infanticide
as abnormality57, 208, 213, 219–20, 225
actus reus significance of218–19
admission of act of222
aetiological basis of217
‘benefit of linen’ plea205, 207
birth and postnatal issues: breastfeeding/lactation29, 57, 62, 217, 219–20, 223
childbirth15, 29, 62, 203, 217, 219–20, 223
matrons, juries of138
medical practitioners of211
motherhood203
‘phrenzy’208, 211
puerperal insanity/psychosis210, 214
registration of birth70
reproductive health214
specialist knowledge about211–12
stress related to208, 214
capital punishment in cases of206, 209
concealment offence of209–10
criminal responsibility and214–16
current law of216–21
diminished responsibility and220–1, 223
disturbance of mind217–19, 223
evaluative aspects of57, 62
exculpatory doctrine, as28–9, 32
gendered construction of224
homicide, as distinct category of223
humanitarian approach207
incapacity and209–13
inculpation via29–33
‘infanticidal type’/woman15, 28, 35, 57, 203, 214–16, 218–19, 225
insanity and208, 211
intoxication, comparison with183
lay knowledge of222
legal actors’ knowledge of221–5
legal meaning of, shift in208
‘lewd’ women and203–8
‘manifest criminality’ as209
married women and204, 208–9, 223–4
medicalization of212
mens rea of218–19
moralization and213–14
murder, separation from221
newborn child murder204–5, 208, 209
partial responsibility219–20, 224
poor law, effect of the203–4
‘preparation’ plea205
procedural rules of223–4
proscribing act of203–8
psychiatry and221
physiology, product of35
puerperal insanity/psychosis210–11
reform of223–4
sentencing practices, sympathetic224–5
social meanings of207, 220, 222–3
socio-economic problems and206–7
‘temporary insanity’219–20
‘want of help’ plea205
‘wilful’, use of term218 see also children; gender
insanity
acquittal on the basis of104–5
arraignment, on72, 75–8, 227 see also unfitness to plead
asylum movement, the153–4
automatism and109–13, 162–3
burden of proof90 n.122, 163–5
consequentialist dimension of135
criminal responsibility and125
dangerousness and104, 111–12, 133–5
‘defect of reason’26 n.31, 36 n.73, 114, 117–21, 217 n.86
diminished responsibility and228, 231, 249, 254
disability, as a basis for103, 116, 122–5
‘disease of the mind’119, 130
disposal167–70
empirical profile of168
evidence and procedure governing159–70
as exculpatory doctrine26–27
expert medical evidence85–6, 146–7
feigned164
flexible application of law169
(p.279) formalization of43, 110, 116
indefinite detention26 n.34, 110–11, 167
infanticide and208
informal plea of103, 104–9
intellectual disability and105
internal cause117–20, 129–30
intoxication and177, 184–5
irresistible impulse123
label, inappropriateness of123, 134
lay knowledge of150–5
medical:
evidence of147, 150
knowledge of43, 85–6, 149
M’Naghten Rules26 n.31, 113–21
‘moral’113, 123
morality and43, 112, 125
‘partial’78 n.53, 106, 227
physical disorders and118
pleas72, 105, 111, 116
practical operation of the law115, 168, 169 n.165
presumption of sanity160–1, 163
puerperal insanity210
raising162–3, 170
reform of133–5
as a social problem, rise of112, 116
risk and104, 111, 134–5
scope of the doctrine114, 148
special verdict165–7
symbolic role of the law116
temporary219–20
ultimate issue146, 157 n.109, 249
uncontrollable impulse123
‘wild beast’ insanity test106–7 see also automatism; disability
intoxication, law of
abnormality and31, 199
alcohol:
alcohol dependency syndrome/alcoholism31, 158, 173, 194–5, 240
common knowledge about48 n.25
drunkenness24, 175–6, 178–80, 184–5
licensing laws48 n.25, 196
patterns of consumption175, 178–81
social tolerance for182
amoral intoxication191–5
alcoholism194–5
involuntary192–3
non-dangerous drugs193–4, 199
‘basic intent’190–1, 195, 197–8
capacity, to form intent54, 182–3, 186
criminal intoxication:
offence of200–1
criminal responsibility and177, 185
dangerous intoxication:
offence of200–1
DPP v Majewski186–91
drugs:
consumption of31, 173, 187, 191
hallucinatory194
non-dangerous193–4
pharmaceutical properties of193–4
‘diminished responsibility’ from175, 179, 194, 239–40, 249
effect(s) of60, 177, 178, 196–7
as exculpatory abnormality174, 182, 185–6, 200
expert knowledge, development of178–81
formalization of60, 173–4, 181–91
inebriates’ legislation180
infanticide, comparison with183
informal intoxication plea, emergence of174–8
insanity and177, 184–5
involuntary30–1, 192–3
Janus-face of law of174, 198–201
lay knowledge of54 n.56, 60, 173, 181, 186, 195–8
local knowledge of177–8
meanings related to173–4
medical and psychiatric knowledge of179–80
as morally culpable conduct174, 199–200
OBPs trial records and184
offence-by-offence approach190–1
pleas:
decline of116
informal174–8
raising175, 178
reform of200
self-induced173, 189
social profile of, changing175
‘specific intent’54, 182–7, 190–1, 195, 197
temperance movement, the179
voluntary8, 14 n.25, 30–1, 173, 187–9, 191–2 see also abnormality; imputation
Jackson, Mark 206–7
Jones, Carole148
Juries
evaluation by154, 181, 196
role of4, 83–4, 98, 138–40, 158–9
‘special juries’138 see also knowledge, lay
Keating, Heather91 n.130
Kennedy, Lord246 n.92
Kilmuir, Viscount127, 129 n.132, 160 n.121, 163 n.134
knowledge, of ‘madness’
changing knowledge context113
common47–8, 107, 136–43
coordination and legitimation37 n.79, 41 n.4, 45–6
different types of46–7
epistemology57
expert medical43, 44–9, 55, 59, 62, 63, 107, 113, 136–7, 143–50, 155–9, 245–53
folk47
general59
knowledge/knowers distinction47 n.23
of legal actors221–5
non-expert44–9, 143–50, 155–9
ontological49, 151–2
prudential150–5
psychiatric45–6, 55, 136
psychological45–6, 136
scientific48 n.27, 62, 155 n.101 see also ‘manifest madness’
Lacey, Nicola7 n.9, 10, 35, 45, 51, 144, 177, 182 n.53, 186, 202 n.1, 230–1
Landsman, Stephen148 n.67
Langbein, John70–1, 174 n.3
Larkin, E. P. and Collins, P. J.86 n.102
Law Commission for England and Wales97–8, 100, 185 n.72, 188–91, 200–1, 223–4, 235, 239, 242, 249, 251
programme of reform170
Lawton, Lord Justice133
lay knowledge, see knowledge
liability
objective and subjective190
ordinary principle of34
partial57, 62, 219, 253–4
participatory96
‘patterns of liability’51–3
structures of177, 204–5 see also criminal responsibility
Lloyd-George, Major48, 234, 237
Mackay, R. D.8 n.12, 100–1, 120, 124 n.109, 163 n.135, 165 n.147, 167–9, 220 n.99, 239, 241 n.71, 243 n.80
and Kearns, G.86 n.102, 159 n.114
et al, study by168–9, 224, 247–52
‘manifest madness’, ‘madness’
‘absolute’ character of74
common knowledge of140
conduct, significance of49–57
crime, intersection with5, 51–5, 58, 141
dispositional construction of5, 13, 49–50
epistemology of57–64, 143
expert knowledges of58, 63 n.83, 143–50
formal qualities of40, 49, 57, 251
gender and61 n.76, 202–25
infanticide and202–25
madness and crime, intersection of39–64, 49–64
‘manifest criminality’ compared with51–4, 59
medicalized character of146
naturalization of ‘madness’137–43
ontology of ‘madness’49–57
proof of ‘madness’142–3, 154, 159–60
readability of5, 13, 49–50, 58–61, 63
reconstruction of159–60
religio-astrologic conceptions137
religious view of137–8
scientific-organic perspectives137
social and cultural attitudes to138
social meanings of107
testimony by ‘ordinary’ people140
McColgan, Aileen252 n.112
M’Naghten, Daniel74 n.36, 113
spelling of name103 n.1
M’Naghten Rules26 n.31, 113–21
creation of113–14
‘defect of reason’117
diminished responsibility and226, 232–4, 236–8
‘disease of the mind’117–20, 236
insanity before M’Naghten104–9
irresistible impulse114
knowledge of wrongness90 n.122, 120–1
‘nature and quality’ of the act120–1
presumption of sanity160–1
reform of124–5
reverse burden of proof164–5
scope of, expanding the169 n.165
three limbs of116–21
wrong, meaning of114 see also insanity
medical conditions
alcohol dependency syndrome/alcoholism31, 158
amnesia99 n.166, 115
arteriosclerosis118 n.73
brain/head injury50, 131, 240
‘deaf and dumb’69 n.8, 71 n.21, 77, 81, 99 n.166
diabetes119–20, 129, 131, 157 n.105, 167 n.151
epilepsy5 n.2, 118, 127–8, 134, 161
hyperglycaemia5 n.2, 118, 129
hypoglycaemia128–30
sleepwalking118, 129–30, 157 n.108
unfitness and99–100 see also disability; psychiatric conditions
mental health, see psychiatric conditions
mental incapacity in criminal law
change and continuity over time40–4
criminal non-responsibility and33
defences17–20
difference, label of34–8
disaggregation, early modern era69
as disciplinary hybrid5
doctrines of3, 17–20
category of26
formalization13
exculpatory26–9
non-exculpatory29–33
exculpation, as basis for9
formalization account40–4
lay knowledge of86–7
moralized notion of116, 124, 133, 136, 149
multidimensional approach6, 39
reasons for examining3–6
(p.281) reconstructing terrain of17–25
roles of16–17
multiplicity of16–17, 216
reconceptualization of16
social dimension of60
social and political interest in4
symbolic significance of4
terrain, scope of3, 8, 16–64
time and space50–1
umbrella term of6
Mitchell, Barry253 n.120
modernity41 n.2, 58, 143, 253
Moore, Michael243–4
morality
amorality5
‘good and evil’74
insanity and43, 112
medicalization of180 n.43
moral standards121
moralization
criminal law as instrument of4, 116
Victorian discourse of112
Morris of Borthy-Gest, Lord26, 163 n.134
Morris, Norval127
Mustill, Lord192 n.109
Nicholls, Lord253 n.119
Normand, Lord Justice-General196 n.124
Norrie, Alan7, 42, 50, 128 n.127, 190 n.96, 193 n.109, 221, 241 n.73, 250 n.106
Old Bailey Criminal Court11, 194
Old Bailey Proceedings (OBPs)
brief references in140–1
expert testimony145–8, 152
insanity and107, 109
intoxication and176, 181, 184
records11–12
Onslow, Lord106 n.14
Ormrod, Lord Justice161 n.123
Otton, Lord Justice99 n.165
Parker CJ, Lord240, 248
Parkin, Henry57
Patten, John95 n.146
Poole, A. R.76 n.46
Poovey, Mary143 n.42
Porter, Roy107, 137–8, 140–1, 213
provocation
diminished responsibility and28 n.39, 252, 253–8
history of28 n.39
psychiatric conditions
anxiety130
delirium115
delusion100 n.167, 115
depression6, 130, 217 n.82, 249 n.103, 252 n.119
‘lesion of the will’144
‘lunacy’144
mania115
mental ‘absence’115
mental disorder24, 50
‘monomania’144
mood disorder100 n.167
‘moral insanity’144
personality:
change50
disorder135, 249 n.103
post-traumatic stress disorder133
psychosis249 n.103
puerperal insanity/psychosis210
reason, effect on119
schizophrenia236 n.49, 249 n.103
stress130, 208
‘unconsciousness’115
unfitness to plead and86 see also disability; medical conditions;psychiatry
psychiatry
‘alienists’4, 144–5, 148, 210–11
discipline of4, 56 n.61, 112
infanticide and221
lexicon of134
‘mad’ doctors145
moralized discourse of deviance55–6
profession, rise of112, 143–50
psy-knowledge5, 19
psychology and5, 55–6
social profile of124 see also knowledge; psychiatric conditions
psychology
moralized discourse of deviance55–6
psychiatry and5, 55–6
social profile of124 see also knowledge
Rabin, Dana34, 105 n.9, 108, 175–7, 205 n.19, 206–8
Reading CJ, Lord120
reasonableness23
excuse(s) and36 n.73
reasonable person, the35–7, 198 n.132
responsibility, see criminal responsibility
Robinson, Paul20–5, 30, 35, 37, 127, 132, 166, 191
Rose, Nikolas135, 144, 153
Royal Commission on Capital Punishment5, 85, 111 n.41, 125, 215 n.76, 232–3 see also capital punishment
Russell, Lord188, 225
Salmon, Justice99 n.165, 183 n.60
Sankey, Lord122 n.104
Scotland, see diminished responsibility
Scotland, Baroness99 n.163
Scottish Law Commission100 n.170, 231, 236 n.52
Shapin, Steven143 n.38, 151–2
Shapiro, Barbara139
(p.282) Simester, A. P. et al250 n.107
Simon, Lord187–8
Smith, Keith105, 114–15, 125, 164, 184, 186 n.75, 234
Smith, Roger72 n.28, 145 n.52, 211–12, 215
socio-historical approach9–11
Sparks, Richard254
State Trial reports11
Stephen, Justice185 n.69
subjectivity3, 6, 51
critical analysis of subjectivism189 n.94
non-subjectivity56
‘subjective criminality’52, 53 n.54
Sullivan, G. R.244
Suzuki, Akihito150 n.77
Tadros, Victor50
Taylor of Gosforth, Lord126 n.115
Tenth Programme of Law Reform134
Tindal, Chief Justice113
Tracy, Justice106–7, 141
trial, criminal
‘accused speaks’/‘lawyer free’71–2
by altercation71–2, 139–40
adversarial105, 146–7
effective processing by137, 160, 162–3
exculpatory71–2
by inquiry138
‘lawyerization’41–2
medieval era, process70–1
by ordeal138
peine forte et dure71 n.21, 138
‘reconstructive’149–50, 164–5
summary:
expansion of jurisdiction79
procedure in87–8
‘trial of the facts’, see unfitness to plead
unfitness to plead
burden of proof82
communication, issues of77
comprehension, issues of77
conceptual interdependency:
with infancy68
with insanity72–5
Consultation Paper (Law Commission)97–102
criteria for a finding of99–102
current era, in the94–102
dangerousness and disposal75–81
deciding unfitness/‘trial of the issue’:
evidence in support of83–6
judge alone98–9
by jury83–4, 98
disposal, of unfit:
detention75–6
range of options83–5
due process and29
dynamic of exclusion, rise of92–102
dynamic of inclusion13, 43, 68, 75, 81–2, 88, 91–2, 94–5, 97, 101–2
expert medical evidence85–6
fairness and special treatment81–8
formalization43, 68, 75–102
inability to participate in a trial70
inability to plead70
insanity on arraignment68, 75–8
lay knowledge of86–7
‘mute by malice’71, 99
‘mute by the visitation of God’71, 73 n.30, 77
omnibus notion of76
plea, significance in medieval process69–72
raising unfitness, rule about61–2
‘readability’ of unfitness62
reform of100–1
special measures, use at trial101–2
substantive criminal law, connection to72–5
symbolic significance102
‘trial of the facts’83–4, 95–8
Valverde, Mariana48, 180, 191, 196–7
victimhood5, 62
Walker, Nigel71 n.20, 73 n.32, 76 n.44, 104, 107 n.17, 154 n.97, 166 n.149, 215–18
and McCabe, S.87 n.109
Ward, Tony37 n.80, 123, 151, 155, 216 n.81, 250
Wasik, Martin254–5
Weiner, M. J.79–80, 110 n.40, 112, 116, 145 n.53, 154 n.97, 179, 183–4, 213
Wells, Celia121 n.99
Williams, Glanville121 n.98, 127
Winnick, B. J.101 n.173
Woolf, Lord164
Wootton, Barbara252 n.117
Zedner, Lucia213 n.64