The fascinating concept of black holes emerged when the gravitational collapse of a massive star was investigated using Einstein’s theory of gravity. This chapter discusses this development. Gravitational collapse is discussed for the idealized matter cloud which is homogeneous and uniform. The emergence of the black hole and the event horizon, a one-way membrane in the spacetime, is discussed and explained, following the work of Robert Oppenheimer, Herbert Snyder, and A. Datt. The chapter discusses the life cycles of massive stars and their inevitable collapse towards the end of their shining life. The debates on event horizon and spacetime singularity are detailed. The chapter describes some of the important developments in black hole physics and their astrophysical implications.
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