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Wounded HeroesVulnerability as a Virtue in Ancient Greek Literature and Philosophy$

Marina Berzins McCoy

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199672783

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672783.001.0001

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(p.222) (p.223) Index

(p.222) (p.223) Index

Source:
Wounded Heroes
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Achillesx, xv, 1, 1 n., 2, 6, 7 n., 13, 15, 16–30, 19 n., 21 n., 26 n., 27 n., 30–35, 30 n., 31 n., 32 n., 33 n., 34 n., 70–1, 82–4, 102, 122, 169, 205–6
armour of17, 24–5, 70–1
shield of13, 35
Aeschylus48, 54, 73
Eumenides54, 172
Agamemnon2, 6–9, 7 n., 15, 16, 18, 19–20, 22, 25, 26–7, 26 n., 59
Agathon130
Aineias5
Alcibiadesxii, 95, 97, 106, 108, 110, 113, 117, 131–9, 133 n., 134 n., 138 n., 169, 182, 182 n., 185, 190, 205
aletheia see truth
ally15, 40, 69, 70
Andromache3, 30
Anger19, 20–2, 21 n., 24–5, 41, 52 n., 53, 57, 70, 79–80, 83, 98, 136, 180, 184; see also rage
Antigone48, 49–50, 52–3, 54, 58, 181, 184 n., 185, 190
Aphrodite4–7, 9–11
Apollo5, 15, 17, 31, 77
appetite95, 99–100, 188, 190, 208
Ares4, 9–11, 10 n., 30
Aristophanes128–30, 130 n., 138
Aristotlex, xii–xiii, 10, 21–2, 45, 51, 72, 95, 141–67, 143 n., 147 n., 169–71, 173–7, 180–1, 186–98, 200, 200 n., 202, 209
De Anima169, 186, 188, 190
Magna Moralia142, 151
Metaphysics201
Nicomachean Ethics51, 95, 141, 144–54, 157–65, 170–1, 194
On Memory and Reminiscence154–5
Politics160, 162, 166, 195–8
Rhetoric21, 72, 151, 169, 173–4, 193–4
Athena5, 10, 28, 30, 60
Athensxi, 48–9, 54, 55, 56, 58–62, 61 n., 62 n., 83 n., 108, 131, 132, 133, 135, 175, 181, 182, 183, 184, 190, 197, 202, 206–7
battle1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 15, 16, 19–20, 23, 24, 25–7, 28, 40, 87, 101, 145, 174
beauty4, 12, 13, 34, 92, 115–16, 117–125, 116 n., 130–1, 132–3, 136
betrayal8, 22, 77–82, 86, 131, 157, 207
blindness37–8, 42, 45, 48, 54, 178, 183
moral206–7
blood5–6, 22, 28
bodyxiii, 11, 27, 60, 62, 62 n., 100, 108–9, 110–11, 117, 120, 127, 187, 190, 195, 196, 207, 208
of Hektorx, 15, 16, 30–4, 34 n.
bow, Philoctetes’63–4, 67, 69–70, 73–5, 76–80, 82, 84, 85 n., 86, 185
Briseis24, 29, 83
brothers3, 5–9, 48, 52, 111, 184 n., 190, 206
burial; see funeral
Calliclesxi, 91–2, 96–104, 99 n., 103 n., 110–12, 137, 169, 185, 208
catharsis; see katharsis
chancex, 46, 82, 145–6, 161, 164
characterviii, 2, 9, 11–13, 17, 18 n., 32 n., 37, 63, 72–4, 79, 95, 97, 101, 127, 142, 145, 146, 147, 149–50, 152, 153, 154, 157, 159–60, 159 n., 160 n., 163–5, 171, 173–4, 177–81, 185, 190, 192, 193, 197–8, 207
Colonus61; see also Sophocles
communicationvii, xi, 6, 7, 8, 11–13, 21, 23, 63, 65, 67–8, 85, 102, 151, 154, 156, 172, 175, 207
(p.224) compassionxi, 37, 40, 47–50, 53–5, 61, 62, 64, 75, 79 n.81, 107, 119, 175 n., 196, 198, 207; see also sympathy
contact43, 50, 66–8
contingencyx, 13, 83, 142–3, 143 n., 154–5, 163, 167, 180
corpse14–15, 24, 30, 43, 99
courage1, 5, 6, 34, 55, 57, 57 n., 95, 145, 148, 164, 171, 184, 194, 201, 202
creativityxii, 116–17, 119, 121, 125–6, 129–30, 137, 139, 139 n., 189, 208
Creon38–9, 42, 47–8, 50–2, 55, 181, 183, 190
criminal40–2, 159
crossroads54
curse38, 39, 48, 52–3, 57, 59, 78–9, 85, 180, 206
Damon197
daughters16, 39, 49–50, 52–3, 59
deception22, 41, 52, 67, 70, 74, 78, 81, 101
demos60, 207
dependenceix, x, xii, 3, 5, 20–1, 31, 37, 49, 50, 108, 129, 129 n., 143, 144, 146, 158, 160, 165, 171, 173–4, 175, 183, 187, 188, 191–2, 210
desirex, xii, 7 n., 8, 21, 26, 32 n., 41, 45–6, 52, 52 n., 60, 63, 66, 67, 70, 71, 77–8, 83, 85, 86, 91, 95, 99, 107–8, 115, 120, 122, 124, 124 n., 126–7, 130, 132–6, 134 n., 144, 148, 150, 167, 174, 178, 181–2, 188, 189, 201, 207
despair39, 79
Diomedes4, 10, 16, 144
Diotimaxii, 115–24, 126–7, 130, 131, 134, 136–7, 139, 139 n., 189, 208
dishonour17, 19, 21
eating5, 27–8, 30–31, 33–35, 123, 161, 188; see also meal
eleos; see pity
emotionxi, 14, 21, 22, 34, 34 n., 45, 64, 72, 74–5, 74 n., 81, 89, 98, 99, 107, 165, 173, 175, 178, 183, 186, 190, 193–6, 199 n.
end, final; see teleology
endurance6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 25, 46, 49, 50, 53, 66, 79, 147
eros; see love
Eryximachus127–8
Eteocles51–3
eudaimonia46, 143, 167, 171
Euripides60 n., 73, 132
Cyclops132
Suppliants60 n., 174, 182
Trojan Women179
Eurypylus24–5
excellence, moral; see virtue
exile38, 41, 43, 49–50, 52–6, 58, 61–2, 81, 174, 206
familyxi, xiii, xvi, 3, 7 n., 8, 10, 20, 48, 59, 61, 65, 72, 73, 92, 143, 160–3, 165, 167, 170, 181, 190, 194, 205, 206, 209
fate13, 38, 39, 46, 48, 54, 60, 61, 78; see also fathers; sons; daughters; brothers; marriage
fathers3, 6, 8, 12, 20–1, 25, 29, 32–3, 33 n., 38, 41 n., 42–3, 47–8, 50–4, 57, 59–60, 70, 78, 83–4, 132, 136, 178, 181, 183, 206
fear6–8, 42, 43, 46, 54, 72, 82, 99, 102, 105, 107, 134, 138, 144, 161, 170, 173–5, 185, 186, 192–6, 195 n., 201, 209
forms, Platonic89, 115–16, 116 n., 117–21, 122, 123, 126, 131
freedom39, 43, 48, 52–3, 73 n., 75, 80, 95, 100, 103, 138, 162, 164, 184, 190, 208
friendshipxiii, 7, 17, 22, 29, 33 n., 66, 67, 68, 69, 73, 76–7, 78 n., 79, 80, 81, 84, 85, 128, 141–63, 145 n., 147 n., 159 n., 166–7, 169, 193, 194, 201, 206, 207, 209
as mirror of self145, 150–1
memory of150, 153–6
funeral15, 27, 30, 35, 184, 202
gaze2, 34, 122–3
gentleness24, 42, 48, 50, 54, 61, 113
gift, exchange of in guest-host relationship56–7, 78 n.
(p.225) gloryviii, 1, 7 n., 8, 11–12, 15, 17–19, 22, 26–7, 31, 32 n., 65, 71, 76, 76 n., 79, 85–6, 122
gods, Greekx, 3–6, 9–11, 17, 22, 28, 29–30, 31, 32, 34, 34 n., 39, 40, 43, 47, 50, 56, 59, 63, 69, 71, 74, 77, 79, 83–6, 92, 121, 127, 130, 131, 152, 181
Gorgias96, 98, 99, 103, 111
grief2, 7, 7 n., 9, 15, 19, 19 n., 27–8, 30, 32–4, 33 n., 35, 72, 76, 152, 156, 183, 201, 202
healingxii, 10–11, 22–5, 65, 82, 84, 85–6, 108, 110, 111, 129, 136, 208; see also medicine
Hektorx, 1, 3, 13, 15, 16, 18, 22, 28–30, 30–5
Hephaistos4, 13, 30
Hera9–10, 22, 30
Herakles63, 69–70, 74, 76–7, 76–7 n., 80, 82, 84–7, 180
heroviii, 1, 6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 18 n., 39, 40, 57, 58 n., 59, 59 n., 61, 95, 173, 177, 195 n., 200
Hippocrates107, 109–10, 112
Homerviii, x, 1, 3–16, 18–22, 18 n., 19 n., 28, 30–1, 31 n., 33–5, 33 n., 56, 71, 92, 112, 144, 169–70, 205
honourviii, 1 n., 2, 3, 7–8, 12, 17–20, 24, 26–8, 27 n., 32, 70, 77, 80–1, 96, 141, 144, 148, 167, 172, 174
hospitalityxi, 31, 34, 39–42, 48–53, 55, 61, 206
identityxi, xiii, 11, 17, 23–4, 32, 37, 44, 52–4, 57–60, 66, 68, 98, 131, 136, 159, 190, 192, 206–8
ignorancex, 37–9, 41, 43, 47–8, 50–2, 68, 84, 96–7, 108, 123, 137, 184, 199, 202, 206, 208
illness44, 55, 81, 105–6, 108, 112, 161, 163, 189, 201, 206
imaginationx, 6, 22, 33 n., 41–2, 72, 77, 82, 91, 98–101, 148, 172–3, 177–80, 186–92, 196, 199 n., 200 n., 209; see also phantasia
imitation33, 102, 118, 173, 176, 190, 198–9
immortality4–6, 9, 13, 23, 28, 32, 121–4, 126, 134
impermanence12–13
incest42–3, 47, 51–2, 54, 56, 178, 183
incontinence159, 161–5
injuryx, 4–12, 23, 81, 108–9
injustice40–2, 96, 100, 102–3, 131, 137, 169, 194, 199, 207
interdependency86, 150, 156, 158, 161, 167
Jocasta39, 42, 46–8, 46 n.
justice1, 19, 24, 40–1, 57 n., 68, 75–77, 80, 83, 85, 94, 97, 102, 105, 108, 137, 142, 163, 169, 173, 181–2, 193–4, 199 n.
katharsisxiii, 170, 192–203, 209
kinaidos91, 99–100
kingship40–1, 49, 185
knowledge23–5, 39, 41, 45, 47, 49–51, 57, 62 n., 106, 122, 124, 133, 137, 142, 154, 156, 161, 162, 178, 183, 185, 195, 202
as modeled on sight37–8, 46, 49, 53–4
as modeled on touch49–51, 206
as recognition47 see also self-knowledge
Laius39, 41–2, 44, 59
languagexi, 44–5, 46 n., 58, 66, 78–9, 85, 92–3, 107, 118, 121–2, 125, 138, 171 n., 182, 191; see also logos
life, as defined through facing death3, 8–18, 26–32, 35, 92–7, 170, 205–6
light26, 38–9, 44, 69, 74, 80, 93, 116 n.
liminality6, 27, 40, 185
logos26, 44, 53, 66–8, 83, 91–2, 101, 103, 122, 135, 138, 191–2
love12, 18, 19 n., 32–3, 33 n., 40, 47, 59, 70, 107, 119–20, 142–3, 143 n., 146–53, 155–6, 159–62, 166, 185, 194, 198, 208
Agathon’s account of130
Aristophanes’ account of128–30
Diotima’s account ofxii, 115–16, 117–18, 121–4, 124 n., 126–7, 130, 130 n., 136–7, 189
Eryximachus’ account of127–8
and logos101, 103, 138–9
(p.226) Pausanius’ account of127
Phaedrus’ account of126–7
of Socrates for Alcibiades131–4, 136
of the goodx, xiii, 115, 146–7, 147 n., 149, 151, 152, 159
luckix, 142, 145–6, 161, 163–4
Lykaon28–9
Machaon7, 22–4
MacIntyre, Alasdair189
magnanimity33, 162, 171
marginal figuresxi, 64, 184–6, 192, 195, 202, 207, 209–10
marriage9, 12–13, 46, 50
meal2, 19, 28, 30–1, 33, 35, 153, 159, 206; see also eating
medicinexii, 23–5, 90, 105–11, 128, 170, 195–6
memoryxiii, 14, 20, 28, 53, 62 n., 150, 153–6, 209
Menelaos6–9, 7 n., 15–16, 59, 206
mercy42
miasma; see pollution
mimesis; see imitation
moderation42, 57, 84, 99, 106, 143, 160, 171
mortalityviii, x, 1, 3–9, 11–19, 22 n., 26–33, 46, 76, 96, 98, 104, 112, 117, 121, 123–4, 130 n., 131, 170, 175, 206
mourning; see grief
mousike; see music
movement, temporal10, 16–17, 18 n., 19, 23–4, 28–30
music23, 128, 157, 195–9
mythviii, xi, 55, 91–2, 97, 99 n., 100–1, 169, 208
of Aristophanes128–9
of judgment in Gorgiasxi–xii, 90–104, 112, 185, 208 see also narrative
mythos see myth
Nagy, Gregory18 n., 19, 25 n., 31 n.
naming11, 19, 58, 132
narrativevii, ix–x, xiii, 1–2, 8–14, 16–18, 19 n., 23, 34 n., 39–40, 67 n., 70, 79 n., 85–6, 90, 92, 99 n., 118, 153–6, 169–71, 181–2, 192, 205–6, 209
Neoptolemusxi, 64–84, 86–7, 101, 165, 178, 185, 207
Niobe33
nomos99–100, 104, 117
Nussbaum, Martha73 n., 76 n., 89, 107, 131, 138, 142, 145, 146 n., 156 n., 160 n., 163, 186, 199 n.
oath7, 9, 74, 183; see also promise
Odysseus27–8, 63–5, 67, 69–71, 73–6, 78–81, 83, 101, 144, 182, 185, 207
pain;see suffering
parricide21, 43, 50–1, 52 n., 178
Pascal119–20, 218
pathos26, 175, 178–80, 200; see also emotion
Patroklosx, 2, 15–17, 19, 21–30, 32–3, 206
Pausanias127–8
Peleus20–1, 25, 32–3
Pelops59
Pericles84, 202
Phaedrus126, 128
phantasia186–9; see also imagination
philia see friendship
Philoctetesxi, 63–5, 65–72, 73–5, 76–87, 79 n., 83 n., 84 n., 101, 105, 165, 169, 179–80, 182, 185, 192, 201, 207
phobos; see fear
Phoenix20–1, 26 n.
phusis; see nature
piety55 n., 57 n., 58 n., 75–6, 78, 81, 201
pityxi, 20–2, 26, 27 n., 32–3, 44, 47, 50, 53, 63–5, 68 n., 75–6, 78, 81, 164, 170, 173–5, 178, 186, 192–6, 206, 209
in contrast to sympathy72–3
Plato:
Apology91, 96, 102–3, 113 n., 137, 184
(p.227) Gorgiasxi, 89–104, 112, 137, 169, 196, 207
Phaedo91, 136–7
Phaedrus94, 126–8, 139
Republic89, 105, 107–8, 166, 197
Sophist199
Theaetetus108, 112, 113 n., 125
Timaeus108–9
Plutarch21, 60–1
Poiesis130, 180–1, 189–90
polisviii, 2, 60–2, 184, 192, 201–2
pollutionxi, 37, 40–4, 46–52, 54–6, 60–1, 178, 185, 201, 206
Polus96–8, 103, 103 n., 183
Polyneices51–3, 57
Poseidon30–1, 92
Priamx, xv, 2, 8, 20, 26 n., 29–35, 87, 164, 206
promise7, 20, 30, 75, 78, 85, 87, 111, 158, 206
prophecy37–8, 41, 46 n., 49
questioning
as form of speech66, 71, 137, 139, 179–81
Socraticx, xii, 100, 107 n., 108, 113, 137, 184, 207–8
rage18–20, 24, 27–8, 30, 34, 41–2, 83; see also anger
reason26 n., 52 n., 57, 65–6, 75, 77, 79, 89, 91, 102–3, 111
in relation to affect98–9, 176–80, 186, 189–90, 194, 199 n.
reliance157, 174
reproduction, eroticxii, 116, 118–19, 121–2, 124, 127, 129–30, 136
responsibility, moralxii, 39–42, 50–2, 55, 112–13, 136–8, 159, 164–5
reversal44–6, 61, 173–5, 177, 206
sacrifice8–9, 27–8, 65, 69, 85, 122, 127, 184 n.
self-control12
self-knowledge37–8, 47, 93–7, 103, 111, 117, 142, 185, 195, 205
self-sufficiencyx, 27, 142–3, 145 n., 158, 160, 209
shame5, 54, 74, 86, 98–9, 103 n., 117, 133–5, 208
shore63–4
sickness; see illness
Simoeis12–14
Skamander17, 28–30
societyxi, 3, 41, 54, 63–4, 66, 67 n., 69, 80, 82, 84, 159–60, 163, 165, 179, 186, 207; see also community
song23–4
sons5, 7, 12, 20, 32–3, 46 n., 48, 50, 52–3, 59–60, 70, 77 n., 78, 81–2, 84, 86, 136, 183
Sophocles:
Antigone52, 183, 190
Oedipus at Colonusx–xi, 37, 39–40, 42, 48–51, 53–4, 56–7, 56 n., 57 n., 60 n., 61, 201, 206–7
Oedipus Rex37–9, 44, 48–9, 50–1, 52, 178, 179, 181, 206
Philoctetesxi, 22, 63–72, 73–89, 101, 105, 178–9, 180, 182, 207
soul-leading200–1
spirit6, 28, 54
story; see narrative
stranger; see xenos
supplication16, 32, 71–2, 78, 81
symmetry16–17
sympathy5, 7, 11, 21, 34, 55 n., 57, 68, 200 n., 206–7
and audience experience of tragedy70, 174–5, 178–80, 186, 198
contrasted to pity72–3
in Rousseau176
sympatheia; see sympathy
Teiresias37–8, 41–2, 45–6
teleologyx, 1, 9–11, 16, 106, 115–16, 165, 170, 205
temperance; see moderation
temporalityvii, 1 n., 2, 17, 19, 23–4, 33 n., 34, 124, 170
(p.228) therapeia108, 111–12, 208
Theseusxi, 37, 40, 42, 49, 53–62, 174, 206–7
Thetis25, 28, 32
Timocles:
Women Celebrating the Dionysia200
trust, in contrast to reliance157–8
tuche; see chance; see luck
vice161, 164–5, 169
virtuevii–xiii, 1–2, 1 n., 12, 15–17, 42, 55 n., 57, 63, 79, 90, 95–6, 111–12, 127–8, 131, 133, 137, 177, 194, 198, 202, 205, 209
and friendship141–3, 144–52, 145 n., 147 n., 153–7, 158–67, 194, 209
of Achilles18–20, 31
of Neoptolemus64, 67–8, 82–3, 207
voice49, 53, 58, 65, 85, 90, 118, 179, 184
voluntary action51–2, 81–2
vulnerability, definition ofvii
Weil, Simone1 n., 14, 19 n., 30 n.
wisdom37–8, 42, 45, 47–8, 57, 58 n., 62, 89, 94, 112, 125, 137, 181
practical wisdom122–3, 152, 200 n.
woundsvii, xii, 1, 37, 42, 49, 53–4, 63–4, 68, 70, 73–4, 77, 79, 81–2, 84, 87, 90, 92, 95–6, 100–1, 103 n., 104–5, 117, 164, 169, 176, 205–8
divine and mortal, contrasted3–13, 15–16, 21–6
in Hippocratic medicine108–9, 111–12
of Alcibiades131–2, 135,
of Aristophanes’ lovers129, 136
Zeus5, 9–11, 22, 29, 32–3, 56, 86, 92–3, 95, 129
and response to wounding of other gods5, 9–11
Zeus Xenios 56–7