‘Reflection’ (2004) discusses the traditional conception of reflection, highlighting Kant’s anticipation of a more adequate conception. Towards developing a positive conception, three examples of successful reflection are considered. An example from meta‐logic is clarification of the notions of logical validity and logical consequence by Skolem, Gödel, and Tarski. Two examples from philosophy are the attempts to clarify the error‐presupposes‐veridicality principle and the thought experiments that led to modern anti‐individualism. All three cases center on a representational function of a cognitive activity. All rely on judgments about necessary implications regarding their subject matters. All involve insight into explanatory priority. The essay claims that these elements of common ground are not accidental. The essay also discusses the classical mistake of thinking that all norms of reasoning are implicitly understood by all reasoners, or at least all critical reasoners.
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