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The Chronicle of SeertChristian Historical Imagination in Late Antique Iraq$

Philip Wood

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199670673

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670673.001.0001

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(p.298) (p.299) Index

(p.298) (p.299) Index

Source:
The Chronicle of Seert
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Aba (catholicos)11, 94, 105, 108–18, 128, 193
Aba (locum tenens)207
ʿAbd al-Malik168, 225, 248 note 116
ʿAbdishoʿ of Arphelouna76
ʿAbdishoʿ of Nisibis (Bar Brikha)7, 122–3, 131, 142 note 81, 230
Abgar the monk (fifth-century hagiographer)40, 44–9, 51–3
Aborsima81
Abraham of Kashkar146–7, 162
represented in later history152–4, 157, 160, 162–3, 242
Abu Bakr248, 250, 253–5
Abu Yusuf247–51
Acacius (catholicos),
described in the Chronicle of Seert11–12, 99–101, 106, 113
later reputation108, 138, 141
role in commissioning history73–5, 77, 94
synod of96–8
Acacius of Amida (Roman emissary)35–6, 54, 72
Addai (apostle)67, 71, 101, 121, 233
Adiabene33, 143, 161
government of211
hagiography of36, 55, 146, 169–70
monasteries in152, 170
Schools in203, 225–6
Agapetus of Beth Lapet79–88, 90
Agapius (Melkite historian)259
agricultural investment23–6, 165
Ahai
as ambassador38, 138
collecting relics and commissioning history9–10, 54, 66, 72, 74–7
relations with the shah9–10, 35
Ahudemmeh68, 130, 141
Aleppo (Beroea)33, 137, 241
Alexandria69, 94, 107, 132, 238
Allahazkha182
Amida33, 35, 74, 200
ʿAmr49 note 70, 63, 68–71, 88, 100, 102 note 34, 160, 182, 184, 197, 222, 260
Anatolius (patriarch)12, 134
angels81, 144, 189, 195
Anoshazad (Sasanian pretender)94, 103 note 38, 110, 113, 116
Antioch
Antiochene theology125–8
connection to eastern sees26, 33–4, 69,88–91, 133, 236
patriarchs of12, 67, 126, 237
school of238
sack of90
Antony70, 78, 81, 133, 242
Aphrahat21 note 65, 82–3
Apollinarius128–30, 138
Arabia  see Bahrayn; Najran
Arbela22, 24, 149
hagiography of61, 72 note 18, 89, 164, 169–71
school of107 note 58
Arbela Chronicle4 note 12
Arcadius33, 74
Ardashir I13–15, 175 note 127
Ardashir II172
Ardashir III180, 186, 216–18
Ardashir-Khurrah36
Arius125, 129, 132, 230, 234, 242
Armenia
in the fifth-century persecutions36 note 22, 49, 75
as Miaphysite68
migration from238
in Roman–Persian relations178–9, 200, 215 note 107
Armenian language texts54, and see Pseudo-Sebeos
Aspanir (suburb of Ctesiphon)101–3
Assur22
Assyria26–30, 143, 169–71
astronomers207
Athanasius of Alexandria107, 129, 132
Athanasius the Camel-driver (Jacobite patriarch)237, 241
Awgin10, 78, 146 note 12, 232, 242–3
Baalbek240
Babai (catholicos)
Babai of Nisibis161, 217
Babai the great (abbot of Izla)
Dyophysite theologian135–42, 149–50, 224–5
and Gregory of Nisibis197, 202, 204 note 85
representation in the Chronicle of Seert182, 186–7
(p.300) reputation in the Book of the Governors156–60
Babowai10–12, 73, 94–100, 108, 112 note 73
Baghdad
anachronistic reference to153 note 42
Christian settlement in231, 237–9
foundation of227–8
Bahrayn76, 103
al-Baladhuri6, 247
Bar Hebraeus82, 85–6, 108, 139, 141, 200, 227, 252
Bar Sahde (historian)252–3
Barbaʿshemin62–3, 101, 121
Barhadbeshaba ʿArbaya78 note 36, 107, 203
Barhadbeshaba108, 130, 132–3, 137, 139
Barsauma of Nisibis93–9, 106–8
Barsauma of Susa137–8
Basil of Caesarea125, 132
Basil of Cilicia (historian)127
Basra  (see also Maishan)222
Belashparr36, 44 note 47
BethʿAbe154–9, 167, 226
Beth Aramaye  see Ctesiphon
Beth Garmai
bishop of29, 33, 205
government of211
martyrs of44, 53
Beth Lapet  see Gundishapur
Bishapur16
bishop lists61, 66–7, 72, 92, 117
Bokhtishoʿ (holy man)78
Bokhtishoʿ family228
Book of Chastity150–3, 161–2, 204 note 85, 243
Book of Life126
Book of the Governors see Thomas of Marga
Bouzaq of Susa101, 112
Cairo241–3
catholicoi
from Fars49, 163
from northern Iraq29, 143
trained at Nisibis28, 94, 109, 120, 203–4
trained at the school of ʿAbda76–8
Catholicosate  see Ctesiphon
Celestine (Pope)137
China9, 35, 175 note 126, 192, 237
church centralization31–6, 51, 105, 143–6, 224–5, 230–6
civic foundation15–16, 25–6, 90–1, 173–4, 222
clerical marriage12, 95–106
coinage reform17, 38, 225
Constantine
imagined in the Abbasid period232–5, 240, 260
imagined in the Sasanian period2, 33, 58, 122 note 3
as a model for Sasanian rulers and nobles33, 210–11
Constantinople128–33, 137, 179, 233–4, 236
Constantinople, patriarchs in ecclesiastical history12, 69, 124, 134–5, 240–1
court connections of churchmen103, 113–18, 143, 194–6, 208, 213–14, 228–9
Ctesiphon
apostolic and patriarchal authority22–3, 140, 235
archaeology102–3
assertions of authority through the Acacian history61, 71–7, 84–91
assertion of authority under Joseph117, 121
assertion of authority under Narsai101–2
early assertions of authority33–6, 78–80
ecclesiastical province23–5
Jacobites in209–10
links to other royal foundations87–91
martyrs of54–60, 61
School of Ctesiphon108–12, 206
site of Khusrau IIʿs murder215–19
site of the ordination of a catholicos189–92, 194–6, 206–7
Cyprian of Carthage4
Cyril of Alexandria126–9, 132–3, 137–40, 240
Dadishoʿ (catholicos)
collapse of authority48–50
imagined as declaring autocephaly141, 236
and the Letter of the Western Fathers79–80
opposed by dissidents43, 79, 90
Dadishoʿ (monastic leader)147–50, 153–8, 161–2
Daniel bar Mariam (historian)9–10, 75, 88 note 71, 123, 260
Dara196–9
Darabhar22
David (Roman general)218
David of Merv102
Daylam168–9, 223, 237
Deh Luran165
Deir Qoni23, 75
Demetrianus (exiled bishop)88–91
democratic language42–4
Diocletian39, 258, 260
Diodore of Tarsus124–6, 129–32, 136, 147
dissident traditions40–4, 55–7, 81–4,202–10
(p.301) doctors (medical)197, 208–9, 227–8
Dyophysitism106–8, 124–42 See also Babai the great
ecclesiology87–91, 236–41
Edessa2, 27, 33, 95, 134, 247–8
and the story of Abgar233
school of the Persians11–12, 28, 73, 77, 94, 98, 106–7, 120, 132
source of missions22
Egypt179–80, 223, 239
ecclesiastical history257–60
‘Nestorian’ monasteries241–2
and the story of Nestorius132–3
as source of cenobitic monasticism78, 84, 146–7, 153–4, 232, 242
Eilya of Hira156
Elias of Merv123, 183, 203 note 82 See further Khuzistan Chronicle
Elias of Nisibis182 note 22, 229–30
Elishe (catholicos)26, 61, 87, 93–4, 100–4, 107
Ephraem7, 27, 71, 84–5, 107, 125
Epiphanius of Salamis71, 128
ērān15 notes 37–8, 33, 216
Eunomius129–32
Eusebius (fictional Pope)233–5
Eusebius of Caesarea55, 62, 69, 91, 123–5, 258–60 as a model for Iraqi histories 62–3, 69–70, 124–6, 258–60
Eutychius (Melkite historian)259
Eutychius (Monophysite ‘heretic’)126
Evagrius127, 132
Ezekiel (catholicos)110, 120, 129–30, 137 note 52, 144–9
Fars
catholicoi from49
and church centralization33–5, 88–90, 105
martyrs in54
missions to168
monks in152–3
as a Sasanian province9, 13–15, 18, 22, 25, 222–5
Felix III (Pope)12
Flavian of Antioch125, 132
Flavian of Constantinople126, 129
florilegia127
Gabriel of Sinjar185–6, 197–201, 203, 206–7, 209–11, 214
Gennadius12, 134
Ghassanids134, 178, 200
Giwargis (convert and martyr)201, 204
Giwargis I140, 161 note 69, 225–6, 229
Gospels46, 80–2, 192
Gregory of Nisibis149, 177, 185–7, 202–9
Gregory of Pherat73 note 21, 149, 158, 181, 206–12
Gundishapur35, 102–3, 165 note 91, 228
foundation of25
rebellion of94, 110, 114
rights of87–91
Haddad Chronicle70–1, 84–5, 88, 237 note 70
hagiographic cycles61, 152
Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf226
Helena (mother of Constantine)84, 122 note 3, 230, 234–5, 240
Henana131 note 30, 149, 162, 185, 203–8
Henanishoʿ I153 note 42, 224, 226–7
Henanishoʿ II229
Hephthalites19, 72 note 16
Heraclius
ecclesiastical politics135–9
invasion of Iraq179–83, 186, 215–19, 260
Hira
histories of70, 185
missions to146, 192–4
monks in152, 156
and the Muslims70, 222, 249–52
place of burial for the patriarch198
place of refuge188, 216
schools in107 note 58
History of Karka de Beth Slouq171 note 115
Holy Spirit88, 157
Hormizd IV143, 177, 182, 185, 188, 216
Hormizd-Ardashir36, 40, 43, 61, 89–90
Hosea (martyr and holy man)41–3, 48–50, 74–5
Iaballaha35–6, 48–50, 53–4, 74–5, 76–80, 92
Ibn al-Tayyib84, 87, 96
incest98 note 20, 105, 111, 115 note 82, 116, 144, 168
India
adventures of Vahram Gur37
Christians in168, 225, 237 note 70
knowledge from116
source of luxury35, 192, 196
inscriptions14–15, 33, 175 note 126, 200, 233
Ishaq (catholicos)9–10, 31–6, 51
composition of history under74, 78–80
Ishaq of Nineveh162
Ishoʿ bar Nun229, 231
Ishoʿdnah of Basra78 note 36, 150–4,229, 243
Ishoʿyahb I
and the embassy to Justinian135–6
(p.302) legislation144, 149
and involvement in the Sasanian civil war181, 183, 185–8, 193–4, 203
and transmission of Western history128–31, 134, 142
Ishoʿyahb II137–9, 218, 244, 248–9
Ishoʿyahb III3, 150, 155, 157, 161, 177, 224–6, 229, 242
Ishoʿyahb IV3
Ishoʿzkha (missionary)193–4
Istakhr14–15, 152 note 36, 189 note 39
Izla28, 143–57, 164–5, 225, 258
Jacob of BethʿAbe150–1, 154–5, 156–8, 161
Jacob of Gundishapur102–4
Jacob of Nisibis81, 84–5, 107, 233
Jacob of Serug104
Jacob the Notary46, 48, 53
Jacob the Sliced53
Jacobites
in the Abbasid period222, 225, 235–7, 240–2, 252–3
anti-Jacobite hagiography162–3
associated with Henana147, 198, 204, 206, 225
attack on Barsauma of Nisibis108
invasion of Iraq96, 99, 106, 129–30, 138, 150, 163, 201, 257–8
expelled from Hira193
maphrian68
monks146–7, 201
patronage from Khusrau II199–201, 220
on the Roman Empire134, 139, 178–9
Jazira (the region between Mosul and Aleppo)130, 163 note 78, 199
Jerusalem
and the Dome of the Rock225
and Helena234
Muslim stories of254–5
under Persian occupation211–15
pilgrimage to81, 153, 235
Jesus, model for hagiography56–60
Jews
conflict with Christians in Arabia245–6, 249, 253–5
conflict with Christians in Iraq41–2, 57, 144, 148, 191, 198
conflict with Christians in Jerusalem179, 211–15
John of Beth Garmai123
John of Daylam168, 233, 247 note 116
John of Phenek224, 226
Joseph (catholicos)
composer of history86–7, 95, 117, 121
legislation144–5, 148–9
Joseph Hazzaya151
Judas Kyriakos235
Julian (emperor)233
Julian Romance235
Julianists136, 252–3
Justinian124, 135–8, 139, 260
Karka de Beth Slouq24, 27, 29, 149, 164 See also Bar Sahde; Yazdin
Karka de Ledan25, 36, 53, 58, 61, 63,89–90
Kartir14–15
Kashkar23, 26, 33, 103–4, 152, 203, 226
Kavad I19–20, 103, 112, 173
Kavad II  see Shiroë
Kayanid18, 38–9, 42
Khusrau I103, 110, 113–17
Khusrau II
in Christian history-writing182, 185
murder of159, 215–18
relations with Christians158, 188–202, 207–9, 211–15
war with Rome, 176–80, 199–202
as a Zoroastrian200–1, 210
Khuzistan Chronicle183–4, 188, 198, 211–13, 216, 230
Khuzistan
as ecclesiastical province16, 25–6, 103
monks of152
relations with Ctesiphon33, 35, 39, 87–91, 103, 164
as a site of martyrdom54–8
Kokhe23–4, 44 note 49, 97, 102–4
Kurds152, 163, 223 note 7
Lakhmids192–3, 249–50
Lawarne45, 53
Leo I (Pope)126, 130
Maʿna (catholicos)37, 49–50, 75
Maccabees53, 56, 59–60, 205, 234
magic56, 144, 147
Maishan26, 33, 76–8, 105, 203, 206
Mamai (wife of Barsauma of Nisibis)108
Mani (prophet), and Manichees14, 74, 76–7, 129–30, 173, 201, 223
Mar ʿAbda of Deir Qoni (monastic founder)9–10, 27, 75–8, 101 note 31
Mar ʿAbda of Hormizd-Ardashir (saint and vandal)39–44, 48–51, 60, 90
(p.303) Mar Mattai monastery68, 70, 108, 210
Mar Narsai of Nisibis (theologian)106–8, 111, 120, 132, 142
Mar Qardagh169–71
Marcian (emperor, convenor of Chalcedon)126, 133–4, 260
Marcion and Marcionites9, 74–7, 129–30, 191–2, 198, 201
Mardanshah (son of Khusrau II)211, 217–8
Mari ibn Sulayman (historian)68–9, 75, 80, 126–7, 133, 182, 222, 229–30, 232, 260
Maria (wife of Khusrau II)215
Martha (daughter of Pusai)53, 62
martyr lists1–2, 10, 64, 70, 121
Marutha of Maypherkat (Roman emissary)
Marutha of Takrit (Miaphysite maphrian)
Mazdak (prophet)20, 148
Media16 note 45, 19, 167
Melqi169–70
Merv103, 152–3, 171, 222, 238
Meshmahig35
Messalianism147–8, 158–9, 174, 242
Miaphysites  see Jacobites
Middle Persian language14–15, 38, 164–5, 167–8, 172–3, 182, 223
Mihr Narseh (chief mobad)19–21, 37–9
Mikha of Beth Garmai123, 182
Miles of Susa61–2, 82–7, 89
miracle-working76–7, 132, 151, 155–6, 163, 165, 189–93, 198, 214
Mobads
in conflict with shah19–21, 37–9, 44–7
leader of109–10, 113, 213
role in the state14, 19–21, 117, 223
stimulate persecution44–7, 53–9, 113–14, 170 See also Zoroastrianism
monastic foundation76–7, 150–3, 167–8
monastic rules147–50, 162, 168
monastic visitation156–8, 226
Monotheletism137 note 57
Mosul  (see also Nineveh)27, 221–2, 226 note 23, 238, 239 note 80
Mshiha-zkha (historian)123
Muhammad (prophet)244–55
Muslims
conquest by and settlement of224–8
negotiation with244–56
Naqsh-i-Rustam14
Narsai (catholicos)26, 61, 87, 93–5, 100–4, 112
Narsai (martyr)44–53, 75
Nehormizd (Persian aristocrat)216–17
Nestorius124–42
Nicaea, council of69, 84–5, 88, 128, 132,137–9, 230–5, 240
Nineveh72, note 16, 180, 221–2
school of Nisibis and historiography26, 95, 107, 11, 120–1, 132–3
Nouroz144
Nuʿman (Arab phylarch)192–4
Pachomius78, 146 note 11, 242–3
Papas79–92, 117, 173, 230, 234–5
Paul of Nisibis136–9, 186
Paul of Samosata91, 128, 130 note 29
Paul the Persian116 note 91
pearl trade9, 35, 74
Peroz (martyr)47, 54
Peroz (shah)78, 96, 112 note 73, 114
persecution
in the fourth century55–65
in the fifth century40–54, 75
in the sixth century113
in the seventh century200–1
in northern Iraq5, 44, 53
shah excused from blame for114–18, 170
Persian Christians36–7, 40, 49, 106–8, 113 note 73, 152–3, 168
Persians, depicted as pagan213–15
Peter of Beth Abe188–9
Pharabokht (anti-catholicos)36–7, 49 note 68, 77
Phocas178–9, 249
pilgrimage to the west81, 153, 235, 239
polygamy105
proselytism
banned by the Sasanians40–4, 50, 94, 110, 201
by ascetics9
facilitated by the Arab conquests224
in the Caucasus134
to China and Central Asia237–9
to Fars168, 223
to Himyar260
to Hira146, 189, 192–4, 252
in Maishan76–8, 203
in northern Iraq162–3 See also Jacobites
Pseudo-Ishaq of Nineveh140–1
Pseudo-George of Arbela140
(p.304) Pseudo-Sebeos178, 180–1, 187, 200, 209
Pulcheria (empress)36 note 17, 126
Pumbedita23
Pusai53, 62, 89
Qayoma73–4, 77–8, 92
Qusṭā ibn Lūqā3, 240
Rabban Apnimaran154–5, 157–8
Rabban BarʿIdta (holy man)150, 162,165–7
Rabban Hormizd (holy man)168, 239
Rabbula of Edessa148
Rayy (Beth Raziqaye)44, 50, 103, 177, 190–1, 195
relic cult52–4, 61, 72, 89, 150–1, 161 see also True Cross
religious vandalism39–46, 50
Roman–Persian relations36–7, 96, 135–9, 177–80, 186, 192
Rome, city12, 69, 128, 233–6, 254
Rumagan24, 92 note 84
Rusafa177–8
Sabrishoʿ (catholicos)161, 179
connection to Jacob of Beth Abe161
and Gregory of Nisibis203–5
impression in the historiography182, 185
saint’s Life188–99
Sahdona151, 154, 159 note 62, 162, 224
Samarra27, 221
Samuel of Kashkar (bishop)102–4
Sawmai of Karka de Ledan (bishop and collector of relics)53–4, 89–90
School of ʿAbda9–10, 23, 27, 76–7, 92, 102 note 31
Seleucia-Ctesiphon  see Ctesiphon
Sergius of Beth Rasthaq (monastic historian)155, 166
Severans  see Jacobites
Severus of Antioch128–30, 139
Shahdost (catholicos)22 note 66, 62–3, 85, 121, 235
Shahdost of Tirhan123, 140–1
Shahrqart22
Shalupha69
Shamta bar Yazdin159, 180–1, 186,216–19
Shapur I14–15, 20, 33, 89
Shapur II21, 39, 56, 86, 89, 170–1, 173, 242
Shapur III172
Shapurian persecutions1–2, 19–22, 33, 44, 52–65, 79, 89–91, 243
Shila100–4, 112
Shiraz222
Shirin (wife of Khusrau II)185–9, 195–6, 206–12, 214, 217
Shiroë159, 175–6, 180, 186, 208, 215–19
Shushtar25, 90, 123
Simeon of Beth Garmai124 note 9
Sinjar152
Slibazkha (catholicos)226
Sliq Harubta44
Socrates Scholasticus (historian)38, 123–9
Sogdian171 note 114
Solomon of Basra71, 175 note 125, 182
state centralization17–18, 143
Sura (rabbinic school)23
Susa25, 89–90, 112, 137
Symeon bar Sebbaʿe21, 25, 52–65, 79–80, 88–9, 105, 113–14
Symeon of Hira193–4
Synodicon Orientale see references under individual catholicoi
al-Tabari
on Arabia250, 253
on the death of Yazdegard37–8
on the murder of Khusrau II216–18
preserving Middle Persian material172
Takhrid (courtier)190–5, 211, 219
Takrit27, 68, 70, 237–9, 248
Talmud16, 20
Tataq (martyr)44, 47, 53
taxation
collaboration of Christians21, 56–60,211–12
Islamic-era debates222–3, 246–51, 256
of monasteries and churches167
reform18, 38
as tyranny56–60, 63, 180, 207, 216–17
Tella (Roman city)33
Tella (village in Maishan)76–7, 90–1
al-Thaʿalibi216
Theodore of Mopsuestia71, 98, 125–7, 130–7, 140, 149
tradition at Nisibis106–7, 111, 203–4
Theodoret of Cyrrhus39–40, 47, 124–9
Theodosius II35, 126, 235
Theodoulos (theologian)11, 106
Thomas (apostle)67
Thomas of Marga153–60, 162, 182, 212, 216–17, 224, 229
Tibet237
Timothy I153 note 42, 156 note 50, 227–37, 239, 252–7
Tomarsa70, 74–8, 92
translation into Arabic4–6, 68, 221, 227, 259–60
(p.305) translation into Greek53 note 5, 214
translation into Syriac94, 116, 122–6, 173, 235, 242
True Cross169, 178, 196, 199, 211–12
ʿUmar I248–54
universal rule33, 178–9, 201, 219
Urmia liturgy121–3
Vahram II14–15, 19–20, 174, 175 note 127
Vahram V (Vahram Gur)18 note 53, 36–9, 46–9, 54, 76
Vahram VI (Vahram Chobin)166, 177, 188
Valash96, 113, 173
Veh Ardashir24
Vistahm (Sasanian pretender)178, 190, 193
Wasit (see also Kashkar)24 note 76, 26 note 84, 227, 230 note 41
Western embassies  see Roman–Persian relations
Xwaday-Namag13, 18, 37–8, 165, 172–4, 182, 185
Yamama76
Yazdegard I9, 14–15, 19–20, 31–49, 75, 78, 172, 205
Yazdegard II25
Yazdegard III186
Yazdin
in the Book of the Governors159–60
in Jerusalem211–14
in the Khuzistan Chronicle183, 187
in the Chronicle of Seert162, 192
prominence as an aristocrat143
recipient of miracles163 see also Shamta bar Yazdin
Zab rivers27, 190
Zachariah of Mytilene117 note 93, 133
Zamasp (shah)113–15
Zeno11, 96, 99
Zoroastrian practices used by Christians115, 144, 167–70, 209–10
Zoroastrianism
collapse of168, 222–3, 259
disputations with Christians41–4, 109–16