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Challenges to Moral and Religious BeliefDisagreement and Evolution$
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Michael Bergmann and Patrick Kain

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199669776

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669776.001.0001

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Normative Disagreement as a Challenge to Moral Philosophy and Philosophical Theology

Normative Disagreement as a Challenge to Moral Philosophy and Philosophical Theology

Chapter:
(p.61) 3 Normative Disagreement as a Challenge to Moral Philosophy and Philosophical Theology
Source:
Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief
Author(s):

Robert Audi

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669776.003.0004

This chapter has three main aims: first, to distinguish between different kinds and degrees of moral disagreement, particularly between disagreements in reasons and disagreements on reasons; second, to show how, in both moral and non-moral disputes, rational disagreement is possible even on self-evident propositions; and third, to sketch a conception of disagreement between rational parties that bears on the problem of religious diversity as a challenge to philosophical theology. Disagreement in moral matters has long been considered a challenge to objectivist ethical theories, and the difficulty of resolving such disagreement appears to support skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, and even of justification, regarding religious beliefs, religious faith, and religious conduct. The chapter explores rational disagreements of many kinds and concludes with an assessment of how, given what we learn from examining them, objectivity can be plausibly claimed in normative matters.

Keywords:   disagreement, divine command theory, epistemic parity, faith and reason, justification, obligation, rationality, reasons, self-evidence

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