This chapter argues that contemporary global migration presents a new challenge. It challenges a fundamental premise in liberal thought under which majority groups can perpetuate their culture by controlling entry into the state. Grouping together nine macro and micro—level changes, the chapter traces a transformation in the relationship between majority groups and minority groups. The nine changes occur in migration patterns (scale, character, intensity), in Western society (population decline, changing lifestyles, new human rights regime), and in the world (geopolitics, technology, globalization). Each of these changes, individually, may not be entirely new, yet the combination of them all together at one time has no historical precedent. This reality brings about political and legal responses and raises normative questions. The aim of this chapter is to document the changing reality and show that it is not adequately addressed by political theory and international human rights law.
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