This chapter examines Locke's views on the cognitive capacities of animals and humans. Special attention is paid to the three components of rationality that are unique to us: abstraction, reflection, and suspension. The chapter explains Locke's notions of reason, reasonableness, and rationality; the relationship between reflection and consciousness; why abstraction, reflection, and suspension are components of moral agency; the normative sense of rationality; and what proper use of our cognitive capacities involves. It concludes by showing, contra Jeremy Waldron, that Locke has both religious and secular grounds for his conception of moral agency.
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