This chapter describes the phenomenon of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) from Russia. Russia has a unique perspective on international investment law. Its status as a net FDI exporter is often not appreciated by commentators. In addition, its weak integration into the institutional structure of international economic relations has really helped the growth of Russian outward FDI, as represented by its long-term absence from the World Trade Organisation (WTO). It is noted that Russian bilateral investment treaties (BITs) tend to consider a provision guaranteeing qualified investors most favoured nation (MFN) treatment. Over the last two decades, the inconsistent pattern of Russia's investment treaty practice has led to the broad diversity of BITs in force today. Russia's commitment to a program of BITs may have helped their considerable FDI flows in recent years.
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