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GrapheneA New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics$
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E. L. Wolf

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199645862

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.001.0001

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Sources and forms of graphene

Sources and forms of graphene

Chapter:
(p.98) 5 Sources and forms of graphene
Source:
Graphene
Author(s):

E. L. Wolf

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.003.0005

Micro-mechanical exfoliation of single graphene sheets from bulk mineral graphite opened the way to reliable measurements of graphene monolayer properties. The substrate supporting the monolayer affects the measured properties. The monolayer is also sensitive to local electric fields that induce local fluctuations in charge density and Fermi energy. Methods of producing multilayer graphenes come from chemical exfoliation in strong acids, separating and oxidizing the layers. The reduction back to carbon leaves many in-plane point defects, degrading the electrical properties. Catalytic CVD on copper is a leading method for making large area, high quality robust sheets. Four transferred monolayers with chemical doping and one meter extent, have resistance as low as 40 Ω/square with high optical transparency, suitable for touch-screen application. Costs are comparable with those of conventional methods, with a flexibility/durability advantage to the graphene product.

Keywords:   micro-mechanical exfoliation, monolayer, charge density, chemical exfoliation, point defect, chemical vapor deposition

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