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GrapheneA New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics$
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E. L. Wolf

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199645862

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.001.0001

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(p.1) 1 Introduction

E. L. Wolf

Oxford University Press

Graphene, the single layer of graphite, is a hexagonal network of carbon atoms of high electrical conductivity and great tensile strength. One atom thick, it was first successfully isolated from graphite by Geim and Novoselov 2004, permitting systematic study. The honeycomb lattice, composed of two interpenetrating triangular lattices, gives carriers a two-component wavefunction, such that direct backscattering is forbidden. The thickness of 0.34 nm gives extremely small resistance to flexure, quantified by an effective spring constant. Van der Waals forces make graphene adhere closely to any substrate. The linear density of states, near the Dirac neutrality points, contains no energy gap. Carriers are induced to easily raise or lower the Fermi energy by an electric field electrode. The field effect, very high electron mobilities and a unique quantum Hall effect in graphene were discovered starting in 2004 by Geim and Novoselov who won Nobel Prizes in Physics in 2010.

Keywords:   graphene, carbon, honeycomb, wavefunction, Dirac point, mobility, electric field effect, quantum Hall effect

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