This chapter contextualizes the specific nineteenth-century debate both within the larger question of whether and, if so, how theology is Wissenschaft (scientia; ‘science’) and within the more specific situation arising from the mid-eighteenth century through the rise of historicism and the specific turn in philosophy of religion since Kant. It starts from a discussion of theology’s institutional context in the university and its the modern transformations; F. Schleiermacher’s contribution to this debate is specifically treated. Subsequent sections explore historicization as a general phenomenon of European culture at the turn of the nineteenth century and its effect on theology in particular as well as the specific contribution made by the rise of German Idealism.
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