The conclusion focuses on the implications of the rise of member statehood for political life in contemporary Europe. It argues that in member states we see the crystallization of two important features of contemporary European politics: the rise of technocracy and the rise of populism. The conclusion argues that both these trends are complimentary rather than contradictory as both rest upon a critique of the idea of political representation. Technocracy and populism are thus the two sides of the member state coin and are products of the long process of state transformation described in the book. The conclusion looks at the future avenues of research generated by this member state paradigm. These include comparative work on policy domains and on the transition to member statehood in individual countries and a study of member statehood as a way into the broader study of international organization.
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