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The Europe of ElitesA Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Political and Economic Elites$

Heinrich Best, György Lengyel, and Luca Verzichelli

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199602315

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602315.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 16 February 2020

(p.xi) List of Tables

(p.xi) List of Tables

Source:
The Europe of Elites
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

  1. 1.1 Foundations, dimensions, and emanations of Europeanness 9

  2. 2.1 Europe as beneficial for the country of the respondents (%) 18

  3. 2.2 Attachment to region, country, and Europe (%) 19

  4. 2.3 Attachment to Europe and support for unification (%) 21

  5. 2.4 Elements defining national and European identity (%) 22

  6. 2.5 Threats to European cohesion (%) 24

  7. 2.6 Oblique factorial analysis of threat perceptions (pattern matrix) 25

  8. 2.7 The broad goals of the EU (%) 26

  9. 2.8 Views about Europe in the future (10 years) (%) 27

  10. 2.9 Share of taxes to be allocated to the European level (%) 30

  11. 2.10 Views about European representation (%) 31

  12. 2.11 Trust in European institutions (within brackets economic elite) 32

  13. 2.12 Views about European institutions (%) 34

  14. 2.13 Views about European governance 35

  15. 2.14 Instruments of influence on EU decisions (%) 36

  16. 2.15 Oblique factorial analysis of political elites’ attitudes towards the European Union (pattern matrix) 37

  17. 2.16 Correlations among constant range scale measures of five components of European citizenship 39

  18. 3.1 Difference in the % of domestic elites who declare a wish for a European career 50

  19. 3.2 Orientation to pursue a career at the European level. Cross-tabulation by groups of countries. Political and economic elites 50

  20. 3.3 Orientation to pursue a European career: correlation analysis 51

  21. 3.4 Propensity to an EU political career and experiences in EU-related issues 52

  22. 3.5 Weights of each variable’s modality in the definition of the first and third factorial axes 55

  23. 3.6 Multiple linear regressions of the countries on the first and third factorial axes 59

  24. (p.xii) 3.7 Multiple linear regressions of the wish to pursue a European career on the first and third axes 61

  25. 3.8 Multiple linear regressions of the scale of attitudes towards the European construction on the first factorial axis 62

  26. 4.1 Factor analysis of level of policy-making variables 70

  27. 4.2 Preferred level of government in policy areas (valid percentages by country) 72

  28. 4.3 Preferences on the Europeanization of three policy areas in 10 years by country (valid percentages) 74

  29. 4.4 Theoretical propositions and variables in analysis 79

  30. 4.5 Preferences on policy-making Europeanization: ‘transnational’ issues 82

  31. 4.6 Preferences on policy-making Europeanization: ‘non-transnational’ issues 84

  32. 4.7 Preferences on Europeanization of policy areas in 10 years 90

  33. 5.1 Ordered logistic regression of elites’ perceptions of threats to a cohesive Europe on their visions of the EU, ideologies, social background, and human resources (seventeen EU countries, 2007) 110

  34. 6.1 Cross-tabulations of opinions on institutional issues 128

  35. 6.2 Weight and orientation of each variable’s modality on the first three factorial axes 130

  36. 6.3 Linear regressions of the elite type on the first factorial axis 136

  37. 6.4 Linear regression of the elite type on the third factorial axis 136

  38. 6.5 Linear regressions of nationalities on the first factorial axis 137

  39. 6.6 Linear regressions of nationalities on the third factorial axis 137

  40. 6.7 Linear regressions of the self-location on the left–right scale on the first factorial axis 139

  41. 6.8 Linear regressions of the self-location on the left–right scale on the second factorial axis 139

  42. 6.9 Linear regressions of countries and political self-positions on the first factorial axis 142

  43. 7.1 European Union should be strengthened 153

  44. 7.2 Attitudes towards EU integration and regional division of countries (in %) 154

  45. 7.3 Attitudes towards EU integration and level of economic development (GDP per capita) of countries (in %) 155

  46. 7.4 Attitudes towards EU integration and level of economic differentiation (Gini coefficient) (in %) 156

  47. 7.5 Attitudes towards EU integration and previous membership in the Soviet block (in %) 157

  48. 7.6 Duration/stability of democratic regime and attitudes towards the EU (in %) 158

  49. 7.7 Historical experience of separatism and attitudes towards the EU (in %) 159

  50. (p.xiii) 7.8 Dominant denominations in a country and elites’ attitudes towards the EU (in %) 161

  51. 7.9 Regression model for attitudes towards EU integration 162

  52. 8.1 Two models of collective outcomes 177

  53. 8.2 Institutional model and party democracy model outcomes: the example of Germany 178

  54. 8.3 Indices of the elite–mass gap across the five issues in 15 countries in 2007 187

  55. 9.1 Salience of selected themes in the Euromanifestos (N = 298) 197

  56. 9.2 Logistic regression for ‘EU decision making: intergovernmental or supranational?’ 200

  57. 9.3 Multinomial logistic regression for ‘EU decision making’ by left–right (radical parties not included) 201

  58. 9.4 Logistic regression for ‘Policies: national or supranational?’ 203

  59. 10.1 Correlations between dimensions of Europeanness (Pearson’s r) 211

  60. 10.2 Multiple regression model for attachment to Europe––political elites 220

  61. 10.3 Multiple regression model for attachment to Europe––economic elites 221

  62. 10.4 Multiple regression model for attitude towards unification––political elites 222

  63. 10.5 Multiple regression model for attitude towards unification––economic elites 223

  64. 10.6 Multiple regression model for attitude towards a single foreign policy––political elites 224

  65. 10.7 Multiple regression model for attitude towards a single foreign policy––economic elites 225

  66. 12.1 Elite sample design 243

  67. 12.2 Political elites by country 245

  68. 12.3 Position of the economic elite by country (absolute numbers) 246

  69. 12.4 Sector of companies’ activity by country (absolute numbers) 247

  70. 12.5 Interview method and fieldwork 248

  71. 12.6 Age (absolute numbers) 249

  72. 12.7 Gender (absolute numbers) 250

  73. 12.8 Birthplace in country or abroad (absolute numbers) 251

  74. 12.9 Birthplace according to type of settlement (absolute numbers) 252

  75. 12.10 Education (absolute numbers) 253