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The Europe of ElitesA Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Political and Economic Elites$

Heinrich Best, György Lengyel, and Luca Verzichelli

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199602315

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602315.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 February 2020

(p.285) Index

(p.285) Index

Source:
The Europe of Elites
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
advocacy coalitions47
age:
and elite Europeanness216, 226
and elite perceptions of threats to European cohesion112
Anderson, C K103
asceticism149
Aspinwall, M78
attitude formation, and Europeanness9
Benhabib, S36, 38
Black, D175, 177
Bourricaud, F215
Braudel, F148–9
Burton, M G234
Bush, G W118
Byrnes, T A107
capitalism, and development of Western148–9
Carey, S217, 219
citizenship:
and elite-public interactions15
and horizontal dimension of16
as multifaceted phenomenon16
and vertical dimension of16 see also European citizenship
class, and European integration124
cognitive mobilization216, 226, 227
Comparative Manifesto Project (CMP)173, 194 n1
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES)173
compound democracy, and European citizenship15
constraining dissensus6, 206, 218, 239
Council of Ministers30
and elite levels of trust in32
cultural capital, and elite Europeanness216
decision-making in EU, and attitudes of political parties199–202
defence policy:
and elite-masses gap on European army184–5
and scope of European governance29
political parties203–4 see also foreign policy
delegation, and asymmetric relationships175
Diez, T95
Downs, A171
economic development, and regional diversity in elite attitudes150–1, 155–7, 163, 165
economic inequality156–7
economic elites, national:
and attachment to Europe18–19, 21, 40, 210, 211, 221
and attitudes towards unification223
and benefits of European Union membership18, 40, 226, 235
and definition of16 n2
and elite-masses gap179–80, 188, 190
and European citizenship, expected attitudes towards17
and European representation30
dominance of some states31
effectiveness of national interest representation31
evaluation of40–1
instruments of political action35–6
powers of European institutions33–4
role of European Commission and member states34–5, 41
trust in European institutions31–2, 41
and future integration, attitudes towards20–1, 40, 212
and identity, elements defining national and European22–3
and influence of16
and scope of European governance:
allocation of policy fields29, 40
allocation of taxes to EU29–30
broad goals of26–7, 40
defence policy29
foreign policy211–13, 225
(p.286) future direction of Europe27–8, 40
and supranational careers43, 45, 48, 53, 236
desire for European career49–50
factors affecting desire for51–3
impact of duration of EU membership50–1
and surveys of10–11
and threats to European cohesion23–5, 40 see also national elites
economic policy, and diversity within Europe98–9
education:
and elite Europeanness216–17, 227
and elite perceptions of threats to European cohesion112–13
elite-masses gap in European integration167, 180, 188–9, 233, 238–9, 240
and common European social security system184
and common European tax system182–4
and cross-country differences168, 214
and defence policy, European army184–5
and economic elites179–80, 188, 190
and elite responses to190–1
and Europeanness213–14
and issue congruence168
as limiting factor214
and measurement issues:
aggregate measures vs comparing distributions174
alternative data173–4
quantitative asymmetry175
and measurement of169
and parliament-government gap186
and policies in place189
and policy representation169–70
absolute vs relative congruence172
directional perspective172
government policy positions170–1
issue proximity171–2
issue salience172
and political parties167–8, 207
and prospective policies189–90
and regional aid/support181
and significance of167–8, 190
and single European foreign policy181
and theoretical framework175–6
coalitions176
decision-making model175
institutional and party democracy models176–80
median voter175–6
models of representation176–80
and ubiquity of231
and voters-parliament gap186
elites:
and European integration2–4
and key role of4
and non-elites:
asymmetry between3
relationship between218
and representative democracy4
environmental policy, and elite preferences for Europeanization of70, 71, 82–3, 86, 87, 91
epistemic communities47
Esaiasson, P190
ethnic homogeneity, and regional diversity in elite attitudes163, 165
Eurelitism208–9
and Europeanness7–8
and factors favouring development of5–6
Eurocracy43
and self-interest in integration4
Euromanifestos192
and content analysis of194–5
and identity197–9
limited salience of European197–9
national identity198, 199
and preferred mode of EU decision-making199–202
and scope of European governance202–5
defence policy203–4
foreign policy202–3
immigration policy204–5
justice policy204
and significance of194
European citizenship14–15
and compound democracy15
and compromises between member states17
and direct citizenship15
and economic elites, expected attitudes of17
and elements defining national and European identity22–3
and horizontal dimension of16
and indirect citizenship15
and national elites15
expected attitudes of17
role in making15–16
and ‘patchy’ shaping of17
and proto-constitution14
and reality of14
as supplement to national citizenship17
and vertical dimension of16
(p.287) European Commission:
and elite levels of trust in32
and elite views of33–4, 34–5, 41
European Constitutional treaty, and rejection in referendums98, 99
European Council30, 122
European institutions, elite views of:
and absence of sector cleavages within economic elites140–1
and determinants of145–6
and diversity of122–3, 144–5
hypotheses explaining123–5
and European socialization141
and four types of attitudes143–4
moderate intergovernmental integrationists144
opponents of integration144
strong integrationists143
weak integrationists143–4, 236
and gender141
and ideology123, 124, 138–40, 146
relationship with national origins141–2
and measurement of125–8
cluster analysis143–4
correlations between answers126–8
Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA)128–9
non-answers to questions132–3
survey questions126
and multifaceted issues of European integration135
and nationality as strong predictor of136–8, 145–6
relationship with ideology141–2
and opposition to/support for European integration129–32, 133–5
and religion141
and similar views of political and economic elites135–6
and strength/weakness of opinions on133, 134, 135
European integration:
as consensual process9
and elite attitudes towards:
country differences148
divisions within122–3
hypotheses explaining123–5
as elite-driven process2–4, 167, 208
and elite integration3, 208, 229–30, 234
systemic integration230
as elite project5, 44
and functional integration theory2, 76
and globalization76
and identity78
reliance on elites94–5
and ideology77–8
and intergovernmental theory of5
and national context235
and national elites:
allocation of policy fields28–9, 40
attachment of18–19, 210, 211, 220–1
attitudes of36–9, 41–2
attitudes towards further integration19–21, 40, 212, 222
benefits of18, 40, 226, 235
broad goals of Europe26–7, 40
future direction of Europe27–8, 40
identity22–3
inward-looking perspective on23–4
reasons for supporting4–5
threats to European cohesion23–5
and national politics10
and non-elites3
and popular views on125
and rationale for1, 2
and reallocation of policy competences67
and removal of external pressures for2
and shared elite attitudes4
and utilitarian argument for76–7
European Parliament30
and elite levels of trust in32
and elite views of33–4, 41
European Union:
and budget of30 n6
and collective and individual citizens17–18
and elites attitudes towards36–9
and evolution into superstate119
and founding aims of119
as a polis14
as product of voluntary association and consensual delegation16–17
Europeanization:
and definition of45
and impact of45
and political parties47
Europeanness, and elites4
and age216, 226
and attachment to one’s own country217, 228–9, 232
and attitudinal variables228, 232
and benefits of EU membership218, 226, 229, 232
as bipolar concept7
and causes of214–16, 227, 231–2
and contacts at EU level217, 227
and cross-country differences210–13, 236–7
and cues from masses218–19, 228, 232
and cues from peer groups218–19, 227, 232, 237–8
and cultural capital216
(p.288) and dimensions of8–9, 209, 231
attitude formation9
cognitive-evaluative8, 65, 209
correlations between210
emotive8, 65, 209
projective-conative8, 210
and education216–17, 227
and elite-masses gap213–14, 231
and gender216, 226–7
and governance scope9, 210
and identity9, 94–5, 210
and ideology216, 221–5, 232
and methodology of study of219–20
as multi-dimensional concept7, 8
and national diversity231
and national elites7–8
and national identity213
and network capital227
of political elites209
and post-functionalist perspective217
and religion216, 225–6
and representation9, 210
and social capita217
and supranational careers44
and trust in European institutions217–18, 229, 232
Euroscepticism10
and limiting effect of214
and national elites6–7
and new member states196, 202–3, 205, 206
and radical parties206 see also elite-masses gap
foreign policy:
and elite-masses gap on181
and elite preferences for Europeanization of69, 75–6, 88, 89, 90, 91, 224–5
cross-country differences211–13
political parties202–3 see also defence policy
functional integration theory2, 215
and elite preferences for policy Europeanization76, 81, 86
Gamson, W A178
gender:
and elite Europeanness216, 226–7
and elite perceptions of threats to European cohesion112
and elite views of European institutions141
Germany, and elite-masses gap178–9
Giddens, A101
globalization:
and elite preferences for policy Europeanization76, 86, 92
as perceived threat to European cohesion101, 116
country differences105
Golder, M172
governance, scope of European:
and Europeanness9, 210
and national elites’ attitudes towards25–30, 235
allocation of policy fields28–9, 40
allocation of taxes to EU29–30
broad goals26–7, 40
defence policy29
future direction of Europe27–8, 40
role of European Commission and member states34–5, 41
welfare state policies29
and political parties’ attitudes towards202–5
decision-making mode199–202
defence policy203–4
foreign policy202–3
immigration policy204–5
justice policy204 see also policy-making
Haba, K98
Haller, M:
and functional integration theory2
and intergovernmental theory of integration5
and supranational European elite44
health policy, and elite preferences for Europeanization of70, 71, 84–5, 87–8, 91
Higley, J234
Hix, S47, 123
Holmberg, S190
Hooghe, L44, 107
and constraining dissensus6, 206, 218, 239
and European political space77–8
and policy Europeanization68
Huber, J D175–6
Huntington, S152
Hutton, W101
identity:
and difference94
and elements defining national and European22–3
and elite preferences for policy Europeanization78, 86, 87, 89, 91
and Europeanness9, 94–5, 210
and immigration101
and ‘no demos’ theory94
and othering95
and paradox of94
and political parties, attitudes of197–9
and public discourse on Europe6–7
(p.289) ideology, and elites:
and attitudes towards European Union195–6, 239–40
and Europeanness216, 221–5, 232
and perceptions of threats to European cohesion105–6, 108, 114, 120
differences115, 116
and preferences for policy Europeanization77–8, 81, 86, 87, 88, 89–92, 93
and views of European institutions123, 124, 138–40, 141–2, 146
immigration:
and elite preferences for policy Europeanization70, 71, 82–3, 86, 87, 91
political parties204–5
and factors hampering cooperation on100–1
and identity101
as perceived threat to European cohesion100–1, 115–16
country differences104
inequality, and regional diversity in elite attitudes156–7
Inglehart, R216
intergovernmental theory of integration5
issue congruence, and elite-masses gap in European integration168
Juncker, J-C167, 168
justice policy:
and elite preferences for Europeanization of70, 71, 82–3
political parties204
and scope of European governance204
Kaltenhaler, K C103
Katz, R S, and EU legitimacy107
Katzenstein, P J107
Kielhorn, A67–8, 70, 71, 76
labour markets, and diversity within Europe99
Ladrech, R, and Europeanization45
liberal nationalism98
Lisbon Treaty148
Marks, G107
and constraining dissensus6, 206, 218, 239
and European political space77–8
and ideology77
Miller, W E168
Mudde, C198
Narud, H M172
national elites17–18
and attachment to Europe18–19, 21, 40, 210, 211, 220–1
and attitudes towards European Union36–9
and benefits of European Union membership18, 40, 226, 235
and European citizenship15
expected attitudes of17
role in making15–16
and European integration3–4
attitudes towards36–9, 41–2
reasons for supporting4–5
and European representation30
dominance of some states31
effectiveness of national interest representation31
evaluation of40–1
instruments of political action35–6
powers of European institutions33–4
role of European Commission and member states34–5, 41
trust in European institutions31–2, 41
and Euroscepticism6–7
and factors favouring integration of5–6
and future integration, attitudes towards19–21, 40, 212
and identity, elements defining national and European22–3
and impact of229–30
and intergovernmental theory of integration5
and inward-looking perspective on Europe23–4
and permissive consensus5
and pivotal role of3
and representation30
and restraining influences on7
and scope of European governance25–30, 235
allocation of policy fields28–9, 40
allocation of taxes to EU29–30
broad goals of26–7, 40
defence policy29
future direction of Europe27–8, 40
national governments, and elite levels of trust in32
national identity97
in Euromanifestos198, 199
and Europeanness213
national parliaments:
and elite levels of trust in32
and sidelining of35
(p.290) nationalism:
and liberal nationalism98
as perceived threat to European cohesion97–8, 114
country differences105
and radical nationalism98
and xenophobic nationalism98
nationality:
and elite views of European institutions136–8, 141–2, 145–6
and elite views on European integration148, 152–3
neo-nationalism, and growth of97–8
network capital, and elite Europeanness217, 227
Neumann, I B100
‘no demos’ theory94
non-elites:
and antipathy towards integration6
and elites:
asymmetry between3
relationship between218
and European integration3
and Europeanization of policy domains67
and Europeanness of9 see also elite-masses gap
othering, and typology of95
permissive consensus5
policy-making, elite preferences for Europeanization of28–9, 40, 67–8, 235–6
and economic elites71–5
long-term preferences75–6, 88–9, 90
short-term preferences81–8
and environmental policy70, 71, 82–3, 86, 87, 91
and foreign policy69, 75–6, 88, 89, 90, 91, 211–13, 224–5
and health policy70, 71, 84–5, 87–8, 91
and immigration policy70, 71, 82–3, 86, 87, 91
and justice policy70, 71, 82–3
and level of policy-making69, 70–1
convergence of problems71
cross-border issues71
cross-country differences71
and long-term preferences88–9, 90
and patterns of92–3
and political elites71–5
long-term preferences75–6, 88–9, 90
short-term preferences81–8
and political parties202–5
defence policy203–4
foreign policy202–3
immigration policy204–5
justice policy204
and puzzle of68
and short-term preferences:
non-transnational policy areas84–5, 87–8
transnational policy areas81–7
and social security69, 75–6, 88, 90, 91
and studies of67–8
and tax policy69, 70, 71, 75–6, 84–5, 87–8, 90, 91
and theoretical explanations of79–80
country-specific factors78, 86, 87–8, 89, 92, 93
functional integration76
functional integration theory81, 86
globalization76, 86, 92
identity78, 86, 87, 89, 91
ideology77–8, 81, 86, 87, 88, 89–92, 93
instrumental-evaluative76–7, 86, 89, 91
and unemployment policy70, 71, 84–5, 87–8
policy representation, and elite-masses gap169–70
and absolute vs relative congruence172
and government policy positions170–1
and issue proximity:
directional perspective172
issue position171
issue salience perspective172
and measurement issues:
aggregate measures vs comparing distributions174
alternative data173–4
quantitative asymmetry175
political elites, national:
and attachment to Europe18–19, 21, 40, 210, 211, 220
and attitudes towards European Union36–9, 235
and attitudes towards unification222
and benefits of European Union membership18, 40, 226, 235
and comparison with party elite attitudes205–6, 207
and convergence in Europe46
and definition of16
and European representation:
dominance of some states31
effectiveness of national interest representation31
evaluation of40–1
instruments of political action35–6
powers of European institutions33
role of European Commission and member states34–5, 41
trust in European institutions31–2, 41
and Europeanization of45
(p.291) and future integration, attitudes towards20–1, 40, 212
and identity, elements defining national and European22–3
and orientation towards European environment46
and representation, role in30
and scope of European governance:
allocation of policy fields28–9, 40
allocation of taxes to EU29–30
broad goals of26–7, 40
defence policy29
foreign policy211, 224
future direction of Europe27–8, 40
welfare state policies29
and socialization into EU affairs192
and supranational careers45, 65–6, 236
attitudes towards Europe49
attraction of46–7
as complementary goal48
correspondence analysis53–60
desire for European career49–50
detached, partially Europeanized MPs64–5
dimensions of Europeanness53–60
Europeanized and cosmopolitan MPs62–3
Europeanized elites in minority61–2
experience in EU affairs52
factors affecting desire for51–4
generational divide48–9
impact of duration of EU membership50–1
increased interest in48
limited interest in53
motivations44, 49
parochial MPs63–4
relationship between Europeanness and Europeanization60–1
self-perceived role52
skills in European issues49
as stepping-stones to national positions47
and surveys of10–11
and threats to European cohesion23–5, 40 see also national elites
political parties, national192, 193, 239–40
and attitudes towards European Union193
impact of government incumbency196, 207, 240
influence of domestic economic system196
influence of ideology195–6, 201, 202, 205, 207, 239–40
and comparison of party and MPs attitudes205–6, 207
and elite-masses gap in European integration167–8, 207
and Euromanifestos:
content analysis194–5
defence policy203–4
EU decision-making199–202
foreign policy202–3
identity197–9
immigration policy204–5
justice policy204
significance of194
and Europeanization, impact of47
and identity197–9
limited salience of European197–9
national identity198, 199
and legitimization of the EU205
and methodology of study of194–6
and preferred mode of EU decision-making199–202
and scope of European governance202–5
defence policy203–4
foreign policy202–3
immigration policy204–5
justice policy204
and selection of political elite47
post-functionalism, and elite Europeanness217
Powell, G B175–6
Protestant work ethic149
radical nationalism98
radical right, and nationalism97–8
regional aid/support, and elite-masses gap181
regional diversity in elite attitudes towards EU integration147, 237
and classification of countries:
Eastern Europe150
Southern Europe150
Western Europe150
and country traditions165–6
and cross-country differences152–3
regional groupings153–4
and cultural factors151–2, 160
and economic development150–1, 155–7, 163, 165
economic inequality156–7
and ethnic homogeneity163, 165
and geographical region163
and historical roots of European regional divisions148–50
and political factors151, 157–60
duration of democratic regimes151, 158–9, 165
former Soviet-bloc countries157–8
separatism159–60, 163
and regression analysis161–3
ambivalence of findings164–5
economic development163
ethnic homogeneity163
(p.292) geographical region163
religion163
separatism163
and religion151–2, 160–1, 163
religion:
and elite Europeanness216, 225–6
and elite perceptions of threats to European cohesion106, 109, 114, 115–16, 118, 120
and elite views of European institutions141
and European integration107
and regional diversity in elite attitudes151–2, 160–1, 163
representation:
and decision-making in EU199–202
and elite views of European representation30, 40–1
dominance of some states31
effectiveness of national interest representation31
instruments of political action35–6
powers of European institutions33–4
role of European Commission and member states34–5, 41
trust in European institutions31–2, 41
and Europeanness9, 210
and national elites30 see also elite-masses gap; policy representation
representation gap,see elite-masses gap
representative democracy, and elites4
Russia:
and communist revolution149
as perceived threat to European cohesion97, 100, 115
country differences103–4
Scharpf, F W218
Schmitt, C95
Schmitt, H172
Scully, R44
selectorates7
separatism, and regional diversity in elite attitudes159–60, 163
Serbia5
social capital, and elite Europeanness217
social policy:
and diversity within Europe98, 99
and scope of European governance29
social security policy:
and elite-masses gap on common European system184
and elite preferences for Europeanization of69, 75–6, 88, 90, 91
state socialism, and threat of1
Steenbergen, M, and ideology77
Stokes, D E168
Stramski, J172
supranational careers and national elites43, 65–6, 236
and attitudes towards Europe49
and attraction of46–7
as complementary goal for career politicians48
and constraints on45
and correspondence analysis of factors influencing53–60
and desire for European career49–50
and detached, partially Europeanized MPs64–5
and dimensions of Europeanness53–60
correspondence analysis53–60
and elite socialization to Europe48
and emergence of43
and Europeanization of careers45
and Europeanized and cosmopolitan MPs62–3
and Europeanized elites in minority61–2
and Europeanness44
and factors affecting desire for51–4
duration of EU membership50–1
experience in EU affairs49, 52
self-perceived role52
and generational divide48–9
and increased interest among political elites48
and limited interest in53
and motivations for44, 49
and narrowing of gap between economic and political elites48
and orientations towards44
and parochial MPs63–4
and relationship between Europeanness and Europeanization60–1
as stepping-stones to national positions47
and structure of opportunity45
systemic integration, and elites230
tax policy:
and elite-masses gap on common European system182–4
and elite preferences for Europeanization of69, 70, 71, 75–6, 84–5, 87–8, 90, 91
and scope of European governance29–30
Thomassen, J172
threats to European cohesion, elite perceptions of23–5, 40, 94, 95–6, 119–21, 237
and economic and social differences among EU states98–9
country differences105
elite differences114
(p.293) and enlargement of EU (excluding Turkey)101–2
elite differences116–18
and external threats97
and factors influencing106
age112
contact with EU institutions109–12
cultural/religious106, 109, 114, 115–16, 118, 120
education112–13
foreign media use112
gender112
ideology105–6, 108, 114, 115, 116, 118, 120
knowledge of foreign languages112
socio-economic107, 109, 120
supranationalism vs intergovernmentalism107, 109, 114, 115, 116, 118, 120
trust in European institutions106, 108–9, 121
and globalization101
country differences105
elite differences116
and immigration100–1
country differences104
elite differences115–16
and internal threats97
and nationalism97–8
country differences105
elite differences114
and otherness95
and ranking of97
and Russia100
country differences103–4
elite differences115
and saliency of96
and significance of96
and similar views of political and economic elites103, 119–20
and Turkey99–100
country differences104–5
elite differences115
and United States102–3
country differences105
elite differences118
and variations between member states103, 119
on globalization105
on immigration104
nationalism105
on Russia103–4
on Turkey104–5
on United States105
trust in European institutions:
and elite Europeanness217–18, 229, 232
and elite levels of31–2, 41
and elite perceptions of threats to European cohesion106, 108–9, 121
Turkey, as perceived threat to European cohesion97, 99–100, 115
country differences104–5
unemployment policy, and elite preferences for Europeanization of70, 71, 84–5, 87–8
United Kingdom, and elite opposition to Europeanization of policy-making75–6
United States, as perceived threat to European cohesion97, 102–3
and country differences105
and elite differences118
Valen, H172
Van Kersbergen, K229
Vaughan-Whitehead, D C107
Weber, M149, 152, 160
welfare state policies:
and elite preferences for Europeanization of69, 75–6, 88, 90, 91
and scope of European governance29
Wessels, B67–8
and EU legitimacy107
and Europeanization of policy-making70, 71, 76
xenophobic nationalism98