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The Europe of ElitesA Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Political and Economic Elites$

Heinrich Best, György Lengyel, and Luca Verzichelli

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199602315

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602315.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 25 January 2020

Appendix. Surveying elites: information on the study design and field report of the IntUne elite survey

Appendix. Surveying elites: information on the study design and field report of the IntUne elite survey

Chapter:
(p.242) 12 Appendix. Surveying elites: information on the study design and field report of the IntUne elite survey
Source:
The Europe of Elites
Author(s):

György Lengyel

Stefan Jahr

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602315.003.0012

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter provides information about the sampling principles and procedures related to data capture for the international IntUne project. This data formed a comprehensive database combining coordinated surveys of Europe-related attitudes at the elite and general population level; the chapters of this book draw on this data. Details of the structure of the questionnaire, its implementation, and some experiences of the fieldwork are also given. The chapter concludes with a breakdown of the key variables and a condensed version of the codebook.

Keywords:   IntUne database, Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing, questionnaire, codebook, fieldwork, variables

In this chapter, we provide basic information about the sampling principles and procedures, the structure of the questionnaire, and some experiences of the fieldwork. This is followed by a breakdown of the key variables and ends with a condensed version of the codebook.

12.1 Sample Design and Rules of Selection

The data underlying this book were obtained by a standardized survey questionnaire, conducted by the eighteen national research teams of the IntUne project. For operational purposes, elites were defined as ‘groups of people who are able personally to have a significant influence on nation-wide reproduction processes’. In this, the first of two waves1 of data collection, the target population consisted of two groups of national elites: members of national parliaments (MPs) and top business leaders (see Table 12.1).

To equalize variations in the size and composition of the survey population within and between the eighteen IntUne elite project member countries, a threshold of eighty political and forty economic elite interviews was specified, although actual final numbers did differ slightly (see Figure 12.1). In total, 1411 political and 730 economic elite members were interviewed. For political elites, the sample design was proportional according to seniority, gender, age, party, and tenure (p.243)

Table 12.1. Elite sample design

Sectors

Organizations

Population and target sample size

14-day reporting duties

Politics

Parliament

80 members of the national parliament, including 15–25 experienced MPs, e.g. (former) ministers or junior ministers, (vice)presidents of the house, the parliamentary groups and standing committees, EU commissioners

Sampling procedure, number of target population, and respondents should have been described according to sub-samples, including basic breakdowns or––if applied––a quota matrix

Business

Private or state-owned business corporations, banks, and business associations

40 business leaders, e.g. (deputy) presidents or CEOs representing between 28 to 34 of the largesta companies and major banks, 6‐12 leaders of the main business associations: one leader per organization

Sampling procedure, the list of contacted corporations, banks, associations, the number of target population, and respondents had to be given according to sub-samples

Note: a According to annual revenue or number of employees.

in parliament. It was also specified that the sample should include at least fifteen experienced (frontbencher) politicians, such as former or present ministers, state secretaries, and the president/vice president of the house, of parliamentary groups, and of standing committees. The actual number of politicians (mean = 78) varied between forty‐six (United Kingdom) and ninety‐four (Spain).The average number of frontbencher politicians across the eighteen countries was twenty‐seven, with a range of twelve (Estonia) to seventy‐three (Lithuania) (see Table 12.2).

The economic elite samples were based on the ‘Top 500 firms’ lists of the respective countries. From these lists, the largest enterprises, banks, and employers’ associations were selected according to a roll-down sample, sorted in descending order by size of annual revenue or number of employees. Where both data sources were available, preference was given to size of revenue. Sampling started with the largest company and the selection of a top leader, i.e. the president or chief executive officer (CEO), or their deputy. As a general rule, only one top leader per company was interviewed. If the president or the CEO was not available, the next person in the company’s hierarchy (vice president, or deputy CEO, or equivalent) was selected for interview. Leaders in lower positions were not eligible for interview. Besides top managers and bankers, it was planned that between six and twelve leaders of the largest business associations (i.e. leaders of industrialists’, employers’, bankers’, and entrepreneurs’ organizations) should be included in the economic elite of each country (see Table 12.3). Trade union leaders were not included. (p.244)

Appendix. Surveying elites: information on the study design and field report of the IntUne elite survey

Figure 12.1. Sample size of political and economic elite by country (absolute numbers)

(p.245)

Table 12.2. Political elites by country

Gender (%)

Age (%)

Party affiliation (%)

Terms (%)

MP‘s status (%)

Successful interviews (#)

Size of the parliament (#)b

Country

male

female

younger than 50

50 and older

governing parties

opposition parties

1st term

2nd and more

frontbencher

backbencher

Austria

70

30

47

53

70

30

32

68

22

78

81

183

Belgium

68

32

54

46

67

33

48

52

21

79

80

150

Bulgaria

75

25

41

59

73

27

63

37

49

51

83

240

Czech Republic

77

23

51

49

51

49

36

64

36

64

80

200

Denmarka

70

30

46

54

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

60

179

Estonia

81

19

55

45

50

50

62

38

17

83

72

101

France

86

14

15

85

65

35

36

64

24

76

81

577

Germany

66

34

32

68

72

28

10

90

20

80

80

613

Greece

87

13

28

72

47

53

40

60

36

64

90

300

Hungary

90

10

40

60

59

41

28

72

48

52

80

386

Italy

79

21

35

65

56

44

48

52

21

79

84

630

Lithuania

81

19

41

59

43

57

41

59

91

9

80

141

Poland

82

18

64

36

50

50

65

35

40

60

80

460

Portugal

72

28

51

49

53

47

45

55

46

54

80

230

Serbia

75

25

67

33

60

40

54

46

44

56

80

250

Slovakia

79

21

42

58

44

56

53

47

56

44

80

150

Spain

60

40

37

63

49

51

51

49

26

74

94

350

United Kingdom

80

20

38

62

50

50

31

69

33

67

46

646

Total

76

24

43

57

57

43

44

56

37

63

1411

Notes: a Some of the data from Denmark are not available because the original research partner dropped out of the project and the survey was conducted by TNS Infratest, without such reporting duties.

b At the time of the survey.

(p.246)

Table 12.3. Position of the economic elite by country (absolute numbers)

Country

President/chair

General manager

Vice-president

Deputy general manager

Director

Other

Missing information

Total

Austria

0

22

0

2

9

2

0

35

Belgium

24

5

2

0

5

6

2

44

Bulgaria

8

22

1

5

5

4

0

45

Czech Republic

12

6

0

3

19

2

0

42

Denmark

1

17

5

8

3

3

3

40

Estonia

7

4

0

19

6

1

3

40

France

18

1

6

3

14

1

0

43

Germany

10

3

3

0

24

3

0

43

Greece

6

4

2

2

5

0

17

36

Hungary

11

4

3

12

12

0

0

42

Italy

8

10

2

2

20

0

0

42

Lithuania

13

18

1

2

6

0

0

40

Poland

21

0

6

2

4

9

0

42

Portugal

18

15

2

1

4

0

0

40

Serbia

17

12

2

6

3

0

0

40

Slovakia

40

40

Spain

18

6

9

3

17

1

1

55

United Kingdom

21

21

Total

192

149

44

70

156

32

87

730

The size of the economic elite sample overall varied between twenty‐one (United Kingdom) and fifty‐five (Spain), and the sub-sample of business association leaders between zero (Greece) and twelve (Italy and Portugal). More than a quarter of all interviewed economic elites held a leading position in the manufacturing industry sector, with the second most represented group being from the trade and services. Overall, according to economic sector, however, the relative majority of the economic elite sample comprises respondents from the tertiary sector (see Table 12.4).

12.2 Questionnaire

The original English questionnaire was translated into the various official national languages by the national research teams. To identify translation problems and to prevent translation losses, each national research team was required to use a ‘four-eye’ translation process, i.e. an independent translation by two people, and then, to ensure accuracy, a subsequent translation from the national language questionnaire back into English. The translated questionnaires were pre-tested in each country, with the number of respondents ranging from four (Italy) to thirteen (Estonia), mostly from the sample of political elites. (p.247)

Table 12.4. Sector of companies’ activity by country (absolute numbers)

Country

Industry

Banking

Trade and services

Mining

Public utilities

Transport

Agriculture

Economic interest groups

Other

Missing information

Total

Austria

18

0

11

0

2

0

3

1

0

0

35

Belgium

22

1

4

0

3

2

0

5

7

0

44

Bulgaria

11

12

13

0

1

4

1

3

0

0

45

Czech Republic

13

4

9

0

5

1

3

4

3

0

42

Denmark

9

4

12

0

2

1

0

6

6

0

40

Estonia

13

1

12

0

1

0

0

6

4

3

40

France

8

10

7

0

0

3

3

10

2

0

43

Germany

16

2

6

0

3

3

1

9

3

0

43

Greece

2

6

10

1

0

0

0

0

2

15

36

Hungary

13

4

11

0

4

1

0

9

0

0

42

Italy

11

4

8

0

6

1

0

12

0

0

42

Lithuania

8

3

12

0

5

0

2

7

3

0

40

Poland

9

2

13

2

2

2

0

8

4

0

42

Portugal

3

4

15

0

3

1

0

12

2

0

40

Serbia

11

9

7

0

6

1

2

4

0

0

40

Slovakia

40

40

Spain

17

5

6

0

10

0

0

11

3

3

55

United Kingdom

21

21

Total

184

71

156

3

53

20

15

107

39

82

730

(p.248)

Table 12.5. Interview method and fieldwork

Political elite

Economic elite

Country

Interview method

Fieldwork period

Number of contacted persons

Interview method

Fieldwork period

Number of contacted persons

Austria

F2F

March–September

108

CATI (89%) F2F (11%)

May–June

197

Belgium

Not available

February–June

Not available

Not available

February–June

Not available

Bulgaria

F2F

February–May

92

F2F

February–May

230

Czech Republic

F2F (99%) CATI (1%)

February–April

111

F2F (94%) CATI (6%)

March–May

66

Denmark

CATI

February–May

Not available

CATI

February–May

Not available

Estonia

F2F

June–November

Not available

F2F (8%) CATI (92%)

April–June

69

France

F2F

Oct. 2006–July 2007

577

F2F

February–October

121

Germany

CATI

February–July

613

CATI

February–July

287

Greece

F2F

February–May

120

F2F

February–May

73

Hungary

F2F

February–May

107

F2F

February–May

94

Italy

F2F (6%) CATI (94%)

February–June

456

F2F (5%) CATI (95%)

February–June

187

Lithuania

F2F

March–May

188

F2F (89%) CATI (11%)

February–June

324

Poland

F2F

March–May

93

F2F

March–May

80

Portugal

F2F (99%) CATI (1%)

February–March

110

F2F (68%) CATI (32%)

March–May

57

Serbia

F2F (91%) CATI (8%)

February–May

90

F2F (88%) CATI (12%)

February–April

82

Slovakia

F2F

March–July

150

F2F

March–May

82

Spain

F2F (74%) CATI (26%)

February–April

172

F2F (28%) CATI (72%)

February–May

176

United Kingdom

F2F (2%) CATI (98%)

February–July

240

CATI

March–July

90

(p.249)

Table 12.6. Age (absolute numbers)

Country

Elite type

Under 50 years

50 years and older

Missing information

Total

Austria

Political Elite

38

42

1

81

Economic Elite

16

16

3

35

Belgium

Political Elite

36

31

13

80

Economic Elite

16

26

2

44

Bulgaria

Political Elite

32

46

5

83

Economic Elite

31

12

2

45

Czech Republic

Political Elite

41

39

0

80

Economic Elite

25

16

1

42

Denmark

Political Elite

27

32

1

60

Economic Elite

20

20

0

40

Estonia

Political Elite

39

32

1

72

Economic Elite

27

12

1

40

France

Political Elite

12

69

0

81

Economic Elite

6

24

13

43

Germany

Political Elite

26

54

0

80

Economic Elite

17

26

0

43

Greece

Political Elite

25

65

0

90

Economic Elite

17

17

2

36

Hungary

Political Elite

32

48

0

80

Economic Elite

14

27

1

42

Italy

Political Elite

29

55

0

84

Economic Elite

20

21

1

42

Lithuania

Political Elite

33

47

0

80

Economic Elite

26

14

0

40

Poland

Political Elite

51

29

0

80

Economic Elite

21

21

0

42

Portugal

Political Elite

41

39

0

80

Economic Elite

13

27

0

40

Serbia

Political Elite

53

26

1

80

Economic Elite

25

15

0

40

Slovakia

Political Elite

34

46

0

80

Economic Elite

22

17

1

40

Spain

Political Elite

35

59

0

94

Economic Elite

13

41

1

55

United Kingdom

Political Elite

17

28

1

46

Economic Elite

8

10

3

21

The final questionnaire consisted of ninety‐four items to be responded to by the political elites and ninety‐nine items by economic elites. Both versions were divided into four thematic sections. The first section contained items about the respondent’s national and European identity; the second covered the interviewee’s focus of representation; the third dealt with issues concerning the scope of governance; and the fourth was devoted to the respondent’s socio-economic background, education, and career, together with a battery of optional questions about influence. To allow for more detailed within- and between-country analyses for the political elites, a set of supplementary technical and contextual variables was added to the final statistical dataset. (p.250)

Table 12.7. Gender (absolute numbers)

Country

Elite type

Male

Female

Missing information

Total

Austria

Political Elite

57

24

0

81

Economic Elite

33

2

0

35

Belgium

Political Elite

54

26

0

80

Economic Elite

43

1

0

44

Bulgaria

Political Elite

62

21

0

83

Economic Elite

30

15

0

45

Czech Republic

Political Elite

61

18

1

80

Economic Elite

37

5

0

42

Denmark

Political Elite

41

18

1

60

Economic Elite

39

1

0

40

Estonia

Political Elite

58

14

0

72

Economic Elite

29

11

0

40

France

Political Elite

70

11

0

81

Economic Elite

38

5

0

43

Germany

Political Elite

53

27

0

80

Economic Elite

39

4

0

43

Greece

Political Elite

78

12

0

90

Economic Elite

33

3

0

36

Hungary

Political Elite

72

8

0

80

Economic Elite

38

4

0

42

Italy

Political Elite

66

18

0

84

Economic Elite

39

3

0

42

Lithuania

Political Elite

65

15

0

80

Economic Elite

34

6

0

40

Poland

Political Elite

66

14

0

80

Economic Elite

36

6

0

42

Portugal

Political Elite

58

22

0

80

Economic Elite

39

1

0

40

Serbia

Political Elite

60

20

0

80

Economic Elite

38

2

0

40

Slovakia

Political Elite

63

17

0

80

Economic Elite

36

4

0

40

Spain

Political Elite

56

38

0

94

Economic Elite

53

2

0

55

United Kingdom

Political Elite

37

9

0

46

Economic Elite

19

2

0

21

12.3 Fieldwork

Sample design and data collection was coordinated by Heinrich Best (Jena), Luca Verzichelli (Siena), and György Lengyel (Budapest). Technical assistance and coordination of data collection was provided in Jena, Germany, first by Andreas Hallermann (until 2008) and then by Stefan Jahr. For the sake of standardization, interviewers were provided with a manual of guidelines for implementing the survey, and were expected to report to the leaders of the national teams every fortnight on the progress of the fieldwork. National teams were expected to report the results, along with any problems, to Jena with the same frequency.

(p.251)

Table 12.8. Birthplace in country or abroad (absolute numbers)

Country

Elite type

Country

Abroad

Missing information

Total

Austria

Political Elite

78

2

1

81

Economic Elite

26

7

2

35

Belgium

Political Elite

73

6

1

80

Economic Elite

40

3

1

44

Bulgaria

Political Elite

83

0

0

83

Economic Elite

43

2

0

45

Czech Republic

Political Elite

79

1

0

80

Economic Elite

42

0

0

42

Denmark

Political Elite

58

2

0

60

Economic Elite

39

1

0

40

Estonia

Political Elite

70

2

0

72

Economic Elite

40

0

0

40

France

Political Elite

75

5

1

81

Economic Elite

40

2

1

43

Germany

Political Elite

80

0

0

80

Economic Elite

38

5

0

43

Greece

Political Elite

90

0

0

90

Economic Elite

28

7

1

36

Hungary

Political Elite

78

2

0

80

Economic Elite

39

3

0

42

Italy

Political Elite

82

2

0

84

Economic Elite

39

3

0

42

Lithuania

Political Elite

74

6

0

80

Economic Elite

37

3

0

40

Poland

Political Elite

80

0

0

80

Economic Elite

40

2

0

42

Portugal

Political Elite

74

6

0

80

Economic Elite

34

6

0

40

Serbia

Political Elite

71

9

0

80

Economic Elite

25

15

0

40

Slovakia

Political Elite

78

1

1

80

Economic Elite

33

7

0

40

Spain

Political Elite

93

1

0

94

Economic Elite

52

3

0

55

United Kingdom

Political Elite

43

3

0

46

Economic Elite

19

2

0

21

Questionnaires were administered using Face to Face (F2F) or Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) techniques (see Table 12.5) between January and July of 2007, except in the case of France and Estonia. Due to the presidential and parliamentary elections in France, which were held from April to June of that year, the French political elite survey started in October 2006. In Estonia, the survey was hampered by the parliamentary elections and subsequent political turmoil between March and April of 2007. As a result, public access to parliament was severely restricted for security reasons until the 10th of May. This meant that first contacts could not be made before mid-May 2007 and that first interviews were not conducted until June.

(p.252)

Table 12.9. Birthplace according to type of settlement (absolute numbers)

Country

Elite type

Rural area or village

Small or medium town

Large town

Capital

Missing information

Total

Austria

Political Elite

18

34

9

18

2

81

Economic Elite

12

5

2

13

3

35

Belgium

Political Elite

12

34

19

13

2

80

Economic Elite

5

17

14

6

2

44

Bulgaria

Political Elite

16

24

27

16

0

83

Economic Elite

3

5

17

20

0

45

Czech Republic

Political Elite

14

37

18

10

1

80

Economic Elite

8

13

8

13

0

42

Denmark

Political Elite

24

14

10

9

3

60

Economic Elite

13

14

8

4

1

40

Estonia

Political Elite

18

24

14

16

0

72

Economic Elite

5

10

7

17

1

40

France

Political Elite

15

35

22

9

0

81

Economic Elite

3

12

11

9

8

43

Germany

Political Elite

17

33

27

0

3

80

Economic Elite

8

9

19

1

6

43

Greece

Political Elite

36

14

25

14

1

90

Economic Elite

4

3

6

17

6

36

Hungary

Political Elite

10

32

12

24

2

80

Economic Elite

7

13

2

17

3

42

Italy

Political Elite

32

32

14

4

2

84

Economic Elite

7

17

8

7

3

42

Lithuania

Political Elite

32

16

15

11

6

80

Economic Elite

10

12

11

4

3

40

Poland

Political Elite

9

41

25

5

0

80

Economic Elite

3

13

13

13

0

42

Portugal

Political Elite

15

36

5

18

6

80

Economic Elite

3

6

5

20

6

40

Serbia

Political Elite

11

35

16

18

0

80

Economic Elite

2

15

9

12

2

40

Slovakia

Political Elite

18

37

13

9

3

80

Economic Elite

6

18

2

10

4

40

Spain

Political Elite

22

32

27

12

1

94

Economic Elite

10

9

16

17

3

55

United Kingdom

Political Elite

4

25

12

3

2

46

Economic Elite

2

8

6

4

1

21

The majority of the national interview teams established the first contacts with the (political and economic elites) interviewees through a personal letter from the research team leader. The letters were sent by regular mail between one and two weeks in advance of the first telephone contact. Some national research teams supported these letters with emails and faxes.

Due to the mixed use of face to face and telephone interviewing techniques, the number of phone calls required was not documented systematically. However, based on the data available for some countries, we can see that a significant number of preparatory calls (estimated at between six and twelve calls for each political interview, and between seven and seventeen for economic elites), emails, and faxes were necessary to conclude an interview. (p.253)

Table 12.10. Education (absolute numbers)

Highest education level

Country

Elite type

None or primary incomplete

Primary completed

Secondary incomplete

Secondary completed

University incomplete

University completed

Master degree

PhD

Missing information

Total

Austria

Political Elite

0

21

1

17

4

21

1

16

0

81

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

2

15

7

8

3

35

Belgium

Political Elite

0

0

0

6

5

47

8

6

8

80

Economic Elite

0

0

0

1

1

21

13

6

2

44

Bulgaria

Political Elite

0

0

0

0

1

1

67

14

0

83

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

0

2

37

6

0

45

Czech Republic

Political Elite

0

0

1

8

4

2

52

13

0

80

Economic Elite

2

0

0

2

1

1

30

6

0

42

Denmark

Political Elite

1

5

1

14

2

29

7

1

0

60

Economic Elite

0

1

0

3

1

23

8

4

0

40

Estonia

Political Elite

0

0

0

1

3

48

14

6

0

72

Economic Elite

0

0

0

1

0

28

9

2

0

40

France

Political Elite

0

3

0

5

0

28

19

24

2

81

Economic Elite

2

0

0

2

0

6

32

1

0

43

Germany

Political Elite

0

7

0

6

1

0

54

11

1

80

Economic Elite

0

1

0

1

1

0

24

16

0

43

Greece

Political Elite

0

0

1

0

2

58

14

15

0

90

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

0

8

21

7

0

36

Hungary

Political Elite

0

0

0

5

2

13

53

7

0

80

Economic Elite

0

0

0

1

0

3

29

9

0

42

Italy

Political Elite

0

0

1

14

0

3

58

7

1

84

Economic Elite

0

0

0

3

1

25

11

2

0

42

Lithuania

Political Elite

0

0

0

1

0

53

8

18

0

80

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

0

33

3

4

0

40

Poland

Political Elite

0

0

1

9

5

4

54

7

0

80

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

1

1

33

7

0

42

Portugal

Political Elite

0

0

1

1

4

64

5

5

0

80

Economic Elite

0

0

1

1

2

24

9

3

0

40

Serbia

Political Elite

0

0

0

5

6

48

6

15

0

80

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

1

21

9

9

0

40

Slovakia

Political Elite

0

0

0

4

0

18

33

25

0

80

Economic Elite

1

0

0

1

0

11

15

12

0

40

Spain

Political Elite

0

0

0

3

6

55

15

14

1

94

Economic Elite

0

0

0

1

0

27

19

8

0

55

United Kingdom

Political Elite

1

0

0

1

1

29

12

2

0

46

Economic Elite

0

0

0

0

0

12

8

0

1

21

(p.254) (p.255)
Appendix. Surveying elites: information on the study design and field report of the IntUne elite survey

Figure 12.2. Distribution of non-valid answers by topic

(p.256) 12.4 Distribution of Social Background Variables

Tables 12.6–12.10 contain basic information on the sample concerning age, gender, birthplace, and education according to countries and type of elite.

12.5 Distribution of Non-Valid Answers

‘Missing information’, ‘do not know’, and ‘refused to answer’ were counted as invalid answers. Questions about occupational and political career have the highest overall share of non-valid answers in terms of sections. Figure 12.2 indicates a relatively low tendency of the interviewees to deny answers. The most important topics in this respect were tax allocation, left–right self-allocation, career ambitions, religious confession, education, and (in the case of the political elite) the use of foreign media.

12.6 Codebook

12.6.1 Variables of Identity

Attachment: People feel different degrees of attachment to their town or village, to their region, to their country, and to Europe. What about you?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

id01a

Attachment to your town/village

1 Very attached

id01b

Attachment to your region

2 Somewhat attached

id01c

Attachment to your country

3 Not very attached

id01d

Attachment to the European Union

4 Not at all attached

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

National identity: People differ in what they think it means to be (NATIONAL). In your view, how important is each of the following to be (NATIONAL)?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

id09a

To be a Christian

1 Very important

id09b

To share (COUNTRY) cultural traditions

2 Somewhat important

id09c

To be born in (COUNTRY)

3 Not very important

id09d

To have (NATIONAL) parents

4 Not important at all

id09e

To respect the (NATIONAL) laws and institutions

98 Don’'t know

id09f

To feel (NATIONAL)

99 Refused

id09g

To master the language(s) of the country

id09h

To be a (COUNTRY) citizen

(p.257)

European Identity: People differ in what they think it means to be a European. In your view, how important is each of the following to be a European?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

id10a

To be a Christian

1 Very important

id10b

To share European cultural traditions

2 Somewhat important

id10c

To be born in Europe

3 Not very important

id10d

To have European parents

4 Not important at all

id10e

To respect the European Union’s laws and institutions

98 Don’t know

id10f

To feel European

99 Refused

id10g

To master a European language

Threats for EU cohesion: Do you think that [Item] is/are a threat for the cohesion of the EU?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

id13a

Immigration from non-EU countries

1 A big threat

id13b1

Enlargement of the EU to include Turkey

2 Quite a big threat

id13b2

Enlargement of the EU to include countries other than Turkey

3 Not that big a threat

4 No threat at all

id13c

The growth of nationalist attitudes in European member states

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

id13d

The close relationships between some European countries and the United States

id13e

The effects of globalization on welfare countries

id13f

Economic and social differences among member states

id13g

The interference of Russia in European affairs

12.6.2 Focus of Representation

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

rp07_1

On a left–right scale where 0 means

0 Left

the left and 10 means the right,

10 Right

where would you place yourself?

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

rp07_2

Do you think of yourself primarily

1 Representative of your constituency

as … (Political Elites only)

2 Representative of your party

3 Representative of a particular social group

4 Representative of the citizens of your country as a whole

5 Refused to choose only one

9 7Filter: ECO_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

(p.258)

Objective Representation

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

rp08

Some say European unification should be strengthened. Others say it already has gone too far. What is your opinion?

0 Unification has already gone too far

10 Unification should be strengthened

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

rp08_1a

The member states ought to remain the central actors of the European Union

1 Agree strongly

2 Agree somewhat

3 Disagree somewhat

rp08_1b

The European Commission ought to become the true government of the European Union

4 Disagree strongly

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

rp08_1c

The powers of the European Parliament ought to be strengthened

1 National armies2 European army

rp08_2

Some say that we should have a single European Union army. Others say every country should keep its own national army. What is your opinion?

3 Both national and European4 Neither/ nor98 Don’t know99 Refused

‘Subjective’ Representation––Trust in Institutions: Please tell me on a score of 0–10 how much you personally trust each of the following EU/national institutions to usually take the right decisions.

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

rp09_1

The national parliament (Economic Elites only)

0 No trust at all

rp09_2rp09_3

The European ParliamentThe [NATIONAL] government (Economic Elites only)

10 Complete trust

97 Filter: POL_Elites

rp09_4rp09_5

The European CommissionThe European Council of Ministers

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

rp09_6

The Regional or local government (Economic Elites only)

Responsiveness: I am going to read a few statements on politics in (NATION) and in Europe. Could you please tell me whether you tend to agree or tend to disagree with each of them?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

rp10_1

Those who make decisions at the EU level do not take enough account of the interests of [COUNTRY] at stake

1 Agree strongly

2 Agree somewhat

3 Disagree somewhat

rp10_2

The interests of some member states carry to much weight at the EU level?

4 Disagree strongly5 Neither agree nor disagree

97 Filter: ECO/POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

(p.259)

Efficacy: There are different ways for national MPs to influence EU policy decisions. How would you evaluate each of the following?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

rp10_3a

Via your national government

1 Agree strongly

rp10_3b

Via your national parliament, and for example its committees

2 Agree somewhat

3 Disagree somewhat

rp10_3c

Via a European party (Political Elites only)

4 Disagree strongly

rp10_3d

Via European business organizations (Economic Elites only)

5 Neither agree nor disagree97 Filter: ECO/POL_Elites

rp10_3e

Via the representations in Economic and Social Committee (Economic Elites only)

98 Don’t know99 Refused

rp10_3f

Lobbying European institutions (Economic Elites only)/Activating contacts with European institutions (Political Elites only)

12.6.3 Scope of Governance

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

sg04

Which of the following two statements comes closer to your view:

1 More competitive

2 Better social security

1. The main aim of the EU should be to make the European economy more competitive in world markets

3 Both

4 None/can’t say

98 Don’t know

2. The main aim of the EU should be to provide better social security for all its citizens

99 Refused

sg01_0a

Out of one hundred euros of tax money a citizen pays, how much should be allocated on the regional level?

444 Don’t know

555 Refused

sg01_0b

Out of one hundred euros of tax money a citizen pays, how much should be allocated on the national level?

sg01_0c

Out of one hundred euros of tax money a citizen pays, how much should be allocated on the European level?

ev2

Taking everything into consideration, would you say that (YOUR COUNTRY) has on balance benefited or not from being a member of the

1 Has benefited

2 Has not benefited

98 Don’t know

European Union?

99 Refused

(p.260)

Policy Competence Present: I am going to read out a list of policy areas. For each of them, as of today, could you please tell me, on the basis of your judgement, whether they are mainly dealt today at regional level, national level, or European Union level?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

sg01_1

Fighting unemployment

1 Regional level

sg01_2sg01_3

Immigration policyEnvironment policy

2 National level

3 European Union level

sg01_4sg01_5sg01_6

Fight against crimeHealth care policyTaxation

4 None of them

5 Regional and National6 National and European

7 Regional and European

8 All three

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

Policy Competence Preferred: How do you think it would be most appropriate to deal with each of the following policy areas?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

sg02_1

Fighting unemployment

1 Regional level

2 National level

sg02_2

Immigration policy

3 European Union level

4 None of them

5 Regional and National

sg02_3

Environment policy

6 National and European

7 Regional and European

sg02_4

Fight against crime

8 All three

sg02_5

Health care policy

98 Don’t know

sg02_6

Taxation

99 Refused

Character of EU in 10 years: Thinking about the European Union over the next 10 years, can you tell me whether you are in favour or against the following …

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

sg03_1sg03_2sg03_3

…a unified tax system for the European Union…a common system of social security…a single EU foreign policy towards outside countries

1 Strongly in favour

2 Somewhat in favour

3 Neither in favour or against

4 Somewhat against

5 Strongly against

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

sg03_4

…more help for EU regions in economic or social difficulties

(p.261) 12.6.4 Contacts to Foreign Countries

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

c01_1

Have you ever lived in another EU country?

1 Yes

2 No

3 Don’t know/Can’t say

c02_1pol/

c02_1eco

How frequently in your political/professional activity were you in contact with actors and institutions of the EU in the last year?

1 At least once a week

2 At least once a month

3 At least once every three months

c02_2pol/

c02_2eco

How frequently in your political/professional activity were you in contact with actors and institutions of other non-EU countries or international organizations in the last year?

4 At least once a year

5 No contacts last year

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev07

When you look at your private life, do you have close relatives or friends living in or coming from another EU country?

1 Yes

2 No

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev08

How often do you use media from other than your nation to inform yourself?

1 Every day

2 Once a the week

3 From time to time

4 Never

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev09a

Have you had contacts in the last year with European interest groups?

1 Yes

2 No

ev09b

Have you had contacts in the last year with European social movements and NGOs outside your country?

98 Don’t know99 Refused

ev09c

Have you had contacts in the last year with Parties of other EU countries?

(p.262) 12.6.5 Occupational and Political Career

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

tenure

MPs tenure––first-term MPs or experienced MPs

0 First term (beginner)

1 Reelected at least once

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

99 Refused

ev02a1

What kind of job did you have POLITICAL ELITE: when you were elected to the parliament for the first time/ECONOMIC ELITE: before you got into the present position?

1 Top civil servant

2 Lower civil servant

3 Politician

4 Top leader of firms/banks

5 Leader, medium position

6 Leader, lower position

7 Professional

8 Entrepreneur, self-employed

9 White collar

10 Employed travelling

11 Employed service job

12 Skilled manual

13 Unskilled manual

14 Non-active

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev02a2

Sector of occupation

1 Public

2 Nationalized industry

3 Private industry

4 Private services

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev02b

How long (how many years) did you have that/(ECONOMIC ELITE: do you have the present) job?

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev02cEco

Did you work abroad? (Economic Elites only)

1 Yes

2 No

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev02dEco

Did you work abroad? If yes, for how long? (Years) (Economic Elites only)

96 Didn’t work abroad

97 Filter: POL_Elites

99 Refused

(p.263)

Political Positions: Now we would like to ask you if you already had any political positions (only POLITICAL ELITES: before your first parliamentary election)?

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

ev03a

City or town councillor

1 Yes

ev03b

Mayor or city executive

2 No

ev03c

Provincial/regional member of assembly

98 Don’t know

ev03d

Provincial/regional executive

99 Refused

ev03e

Top governmental position

ev04aPol

Party positions before first parliamentary election? (Political Elites only)

1 Nothing

2 Local

3 Regional

4 National

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev04bPol

Have you or have you had a position in EU party federations? (Political Elites only)

1 Yes

2 No

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev04aEco

Are you a member of a party? (Economic Elites only)

1 Yes2 No97 Filter: POL_Elites

ev04bEco

Have you ever been a member of a party? (Economic Elites only)

98 Don’t know99 Refused

ev04cEco

Have you or have you had a position in a multinational firm or association? (Economic Elites only)

ev06

Are you considering pursuing a POLITICAL ELITE: political/ECONOMIC ELITE: professional career on a European level?

1 Yes

2 No

5 Already has a European Career

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

(p.264)

Occupational Career of Economic Elites

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

b1Eco

Position at company

1 President/Chair

2 General manager

3 Vice-President, Deputy

4 Deputy general manager

5 Director

6 Other

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

b2Eco

Which year did you get your current position (4 digits)?

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

b3Eco

Your previous position was … (Company)

1 At this company

2 At another company

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

b4Eco

Your previous position was … (Sector)

1 Same industry sector

2 Another industry sector

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

b5Eco

Have you ever been an MP or a party leader?

1 Yes

2 No

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

b6Eco

Companies’ revenue in 2006 (in euros)

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

b7Eco

Companies’ number of employees in 2006

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

b8Eco

Sector of activity of the company

1 Industry

2 Banking

3 Trade and services

4 Mining

5 Public utilities

6 Transport

7 Agriculture

8 Economic interest groups

9 Other

97 Filter: POL_Elites

98 Don’t know

(p.265) 12.6.6 Optional Battery

Influence on important issues of the country: People may differ according to their influence on important issues of the country. Please mark on a scale from 0 to 100 how much influence the following persons have on important issues of [COUNTRY].

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

W1

Average citizen

0 No influence at all

W2

Experienced member of parliament

100 Absolutely great influence

W3

Unexperienced member of parliament

W4

Top manager of a great company

W5

Top manager of a great bank

W6

Leader of employer’s organization

W7

Man in a position like yours

12.6.7 Social Background

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

c01_2_1 toc01_2_27

Which language do you speak?

Spoken European languages including national and regional dialects

c01_3

Which language do you speak at home?

1 Yes

2 No

96 Native language

ev01a_1

Which has been the highest education degree received?

1 None

2 Incomplete primary

3 Primary completed

4 Incomplete secondary

5 Secondary completed

6 University incomplete

7 University degree completed

8 Master degree

9 PhD

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev01a_2

University degree in which field?

1 Law

2 Business

3 Engineering

4 Social sciences

5 Humanities

6 Else

97 No university degree

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

ev01b_1

Have you had any study experience abroad?

1 Yes

2 No

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

(p.266)

Variable

Question/Statement

Values

ev01b_2r

Have you had any study experience abroad? (Level)

1 Elementary

2 Secondary

3 University

4 PhD/MBA

5 Other

ev01b_3

Have you had any study experience abroad? Duration in years

96 No study experience abroad

Sex

Gender

1 Male

2 Female

BPlace1

Birthplace in country or abroad

1 In (country)

2 Abroad

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

BPlace2

Birthplace within country

1 Rural area/village

2 Small/medium town

3 Large town

4 Capital

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

BYear

Year of birth (4 digits, e.g. 1955)

9998 Don’t know

age

Age

9999 Refused

Age_gr

Age grouped: below 50 years and 50 years and older

0 Under 50

1 50+

99 No Answer

religion

Religious confession

1 Catholic

2 Orthodox

3 Protestant

4 Other Christian

5 Jewish

6 Muslim

7 Sikh

8 Buddhist

9 Hindu

10 Atheist

11 Non-Believer/Agnostic

12 Other

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

(p.267) 12.6.8 Technical and Contextual Variables

Variable

Content

Values

Country

Country’s name

1 Austria

2 Belgium

3 Bulgaria

4 Czech Republic

5 Denmark

6 Estonia

7 France

8 Germany

9 United Kingdom

10 Greece

11 Hungary

12 Italy

13 Lithuania

14 Poland

15 Portugal

16 Serbia

17 Slovakia

18 Spain

19 Turkey

EuropeEW

Distinction between Eastern and Western European countries

0 Western European

1 Eastern European

Elittype

Political or economic elite?

1 Political Elite

2 Economic Elite

VADD101

Total number of seats in parliament

−97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD102

Number of seats each party

VADD103

Name of first tier

VADD106

Name of second tier

VADD109

Name of third tier

VADD104

Number of first tier electoral districts

−97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD107

Number of second tier electoral districts

9999 Not applicable

VADD110

Number of third tier electoral districts

(p.268)

Variable

Content

Values

VADD105

Seat allocation method first tier

1 Single member plurality

2 Single member majority

VADD108

Seat allocation method second tier

3 Closed party list

4 Party list subject to changes

VADD111

Seat allocation method third tier

5 Party list with preference votes

6 Other

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD112

Year when parliament was elected

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD113

Year of next regular election

VADD114

Year of EU membership

9999 Non-EU state

VADD01

MP belonging to government party

0 Yes

1 No

VADD02

MP frontbencher

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD03

MP tenure

0 Beginner, first term

1 Re-elected once

2 Re-elected twice

11 Re-elected eleven times

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

VADD04

Original party name––Acronym

VADD05

Party family

1 Communists

2 New Left

3 Socialists/Social Democrats

4 Greens

5 Agrarians

6 Liberals

7 Left Liberals

8 Right Liberals

9 Christian Democrats

10 Conservatives

11 Extreme Right

12 Ethnic Minority, Regionalist, others

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD06

Tier of electoral system at which the MP was elected

1 First

2 Second

3 Third

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

98 Don’t know

99 Refused

VADD07

Number of seats in MPs electoral district

−97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD08

Former or present member of EU affair committee

0 Yes

1 No

97 Filter: ECO_Elites

VADD10

Firm ranking

Notes:

(1) Only data from wave 1 is used in the chapters of this book.