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Development at the World Trade Organization$
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Sonia E. Rolland

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199600885

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600885.001.0001

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The Trade and Development Relationship during the GATT Years and the Genesis of the WTO

The Trade and Development Relationship during the GATT Years and the Genesis of the WTO

Chapter:
(p.61) 3 The Trade and Development Relationship during the GATT Years and the Genesis of the WTO
Source:
Development at the World Trade Organization
Author(s):

Sonia E. Rolland

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600885.003.0004

The public international law approach to development attempted to incorporate development at the core of the trade regime. The ITO embodied that philosophy, as did Part IV of the GATT, non-reciprocity, the Enabling Clause and, more recently, the reference to sustainable development in the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the WTO. By contrast, the technical approach to trade regulation and development translated into ad hoc or limited carve-outs from general disciplines, such as GATT Article XVIII, trade preferences, “special and differential treatment” clauses in the Uruguay Round agreements, and the Doha Decision on Public Health. Such instruments often predetermine and limit the ability of developing countries to devise their own development policies. It is in part in reaction that the notion of “policy space” emerged as a rallying cry for those who wanted to reclaim more control over domestic economic policy.

Keywords:   development, GATT, general agreement on tariffs and trade, international trade organization, uruguay Round, UNCTAD, enabling clause, GSP, generalized system of preferences, policy space

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