Eighteenth‐century matter theory—primarily the study of electricity, magnetism, pneumatics, chemistry, and physiology—appears as a network of different kinds of practice having no intrinsic substantial connections with one another, and having no intrinsic relation with the mechanics that had aspired to reduce and unify them. There was a strong widespread reaction against the idea of system‐building. Beginning with an account of the connections made between Newtonianism and the reaction against systematic natural philosophy in favour of experimental natural philosophy, the chapter explores mid‐eighteenth century developments in electricity, above all the work of Benjamin Franklin, and in chemistry, especially the emergence of the idea that in its fundamental state matter is fluid, not solid.
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