Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Clinical Neurobiology of the HippocampusAn integrative view$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Thorsten Bartsch

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199592388

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592388.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 31 March 2020

Stress and the Hippocampus

Stress and the Hippocampus

(p.77) Chapter 5 Stress and the Hippocampus
The Clinical Neurobiology of the Hippocampus

E. Ronald de Kloet

Oxford University Press

Environmental stimuli perceived as stressors and processed in higher brain circuits including the hippocampus activate the release of several neuropeptides eventually leading to the secretion of adrenal cortisol which feeds back on the brain. To exert this feedback, the action of cortisol is mediated by nuclear receptors that operate as gene transcription factors but can also directly affect neurotransmission. There are two types of receptors, the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Both serve complementary as master switch in the control of neural network responses that facilitate the defence and recovery of homeostasis underlying behavioural adaptation. Imbalance in MR:GR driven pathways, caused either by genetic receptor variants or by experince-related factors, compromises processing of stressful information. Therapies are therefore envisioned to rebalance the stress system for protection, resilience or repair from damaging signalling pathways that can introduce a bias towards stress-related brain disease. In this chapter, the basal pulsatility and the stress-induced modes of operation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are described. Further, central highlights of cortisol action are presented on different levels of biological complexity from emotions and cognitive performance to their molecular underpinnings. Next is a discussion on genetic receptor variants and the programming of brain and behaviour by early experience. A brief synthesis of cortisol actions for clinical neurobiology of the hippocampus and some thoughts on potential treatment strategies conclude the chapter.

Keywords:   hippocampus, stress, brain, development, behaviour, hormones, glucocorticoids, receptor polymorphisms, gene transcription, depression, ageing

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .