This chapter discusses the use of network theory to study anatomical systems at different levels. It starts with the analysis of intercellular networks in different kinds of tissues; the way in which they are constructed; and the role network theory in distinguishing various kinds of tissues, such as healthy from inflamed and cancerous ones. The study of vascular networks is presented in a concise way, as exemplified by networks inside bones and brain vascular networks. Then, the chapter turns to the study of brain networks. This part is divided into two sections, one for brain networks in non-humans and another devoted to human brain networks. In both cases, the analyses of local and global structural properties of these networks are accounted for; in particular, the role of network theory for the analysis of different aspects of the human brain, such as intelligence, neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, and stroke lesions.
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