It is argued that particulars have only a ‘loose and popular’ identity over time (Bishop Butler), ‘perdurantist’ rather than ‘endurantist’. For an unchanging particular we need to go to a four‐dimensional object, a ‘space‐time worm’. Such an object is primarily held together by a causal relation (immanent causation in W.E. Johnson's terminology). Following Russell, an ordinary particular can be described as a ‘causal line’. Particulars are contingent entities.
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