This chapter gives the first estimates of long-term joining and lapsing rates. These were very stable until the 1970s, much more stable than non-commercial societies, trade unions, or many sector organizations. However, a rapid evolution took place after 1970, but mainly in the 1980s and 1990s to very high rates of membership turnover. This has become one of the major challenges of the modern chamber. Econometric analysis shows that economic crises have little effect on this. The main features associated with lapsing are changes in subscriptions, and changes in services and other costs. Comparison or independent chambers with those that merged with government-financed TECs, show the latter to have had higher lapse rates.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.