This chapter defines the most important electric properties of a molecule, the electric dipole and quadrupole moment as well as the corresponding polarizabilities, via the multipole expansion of the electrostatic potential of a molecule and the multipole expansion of the energy of a molecule in an external electric field. The properties are then expressed as derivatives of the energy of a molecule and quantum mechanical expressions, for these properties are derived using time-independent perturbation theory as presented in Chapter 3. The chapter ends with a discussion of the electric field and field gradients arising from the electrons at the position of the nuclei in a molecule.
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