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Managing the MarginsGender, Citizenship, and the International Regulation of Precarious Employment$

Leah F. Vosko

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199574810

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574810.001.0001

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(p.291) Index

(p.291) Index

Source:
Managing the Margins
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Aberdeen, Lady50 n.
Aboriginal people12, 24 n.
Abraham, K.169
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics)73, 90 n., 92 n., 120, 237
Abu‐Laban, Y.12
ACCI (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry)187
accidents63, 146, 190
Acker, J.9
ACTU (Australian Council of Trade Unions)112, 119, 120–1
Adkins v. Children's Hospital (US Supreme Court 1923)33
AFPCS (Australian Fair Pay and Conditions Standard)114–15, 118, 124 n.
Africa146, 200 n.
agency work, see temporary agency work
AIRC (Australian Industrial Relations Commission)106, 123, 124 n.
Family Provisions test‐case16, 111–15, 119, 120, 121
institution designed partly to replace117
women's high levels of labour market insecurity113 see also SAIRC
Albarracín D.142, 143, 162 n.
Alcock, A.13, 43, 48
Aliaga, C.92 n.
Allied Women's Suffragists44
Allocation of Workers by Intermediaries Act (Netherlands 1998)158–9 nn.
ALP (Australian Labor Party)32, 115–16, 117, 118, 121, 122 n., 125 n., 185, 203 n.
Alston, P.14, 86
Ambrosini, M.78, 131, 146
American Association for Labor Legislation36
Amsterdam Treaty (1998)135
Anderson, M.39, 45, 49 n.
annualization97, 117
anti‐discrimination issues67, 191, 203 n., 206 n.
anti‐inflationary measures219
Anxo, D.9, 22 n., 55, 60, 77, 78, 98, 100, 220
Appelbaum, E.22 n., 65, 99, 211, 213, 222
Arat‐Koc, S.8, 12, 83, 214
arbitral laws114
arbitrary expulsion84
Archibald, K.23 n.
Armstrong, H. & P.7, 9, 65, 76, 90 n.
Arrowsmith, J.141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 161 n., 162 n., 240, 241
Arthurs, H. W.6, 168, 207 n.
Ashiagbor, D.160 n.
Asia Group (ILO)200 n.
Astrom, G.9
atypical work2, 73, 81, 86, 102, 134, 180
Auer, P.130, 215
Australia6, 13, 15, 19, 22 n., 23 n., 27, 30, 56, 65, 83, 89, 90 n., 128, 166, 184–7, 200 n., 212
casual loadings106, 120, 124 n., 143
common‐law legal tests167
early minimum wage‐setting32
full‐time permanent/paid employment74, 91 n., 209, 237
gendered division of unpaid childcare92 n.
hours of work29, 30, 92 n.
human rights115, 168
immigrants23 n.
male workers gain shorter work day29
management of labour market margins105–7
migrant workers93 n.
part‐time workers9, 89, 95–125
periods of rest and holidays codified56
protections withdrawn20
regulations directed at non‐standard employment13
(p.292)
self‐employment79, 169, 170, 171, 183
SER74–80
total work91–2 nn., 238
unions108, 110, 111, 117, 121, 123–4 nn.
voting rights for women24 n., 41
Austria40, 79, 93 n., 140, 141, 145, 146
part‐time employment98
presumption of subordination204 n.
self‐employment170, 171, 190
Autor, D. H.211
AWAs (Australian Workplace Agreements)114, 115, 117, 122 n.
Baines, D.225
Bakan, A. B.10, 12, 83
Barker, K.210
Barnard, C.6, 136, 191, 205 n.
Barone, C.78, 131, 146
barriers to trade151
Baxter, J.77
BECTU (UK Broadcasting Entertainment Cinematograph and Theatre Union)198
Belgium58, 77 n., 79, 234, 235, 237, 238
self‐employment170, 171
temporary employment98, 132, 142, 144, 146, 162 n.
Bell, S. G.39
Belous, R.73
Bendel, M.6, 168
benefits and entitlements1
access to51, 87, 88, 103, 108, 132
back‐loaded91 n.
cash66–7
deferred59
differential non‐pecuniary102
employer‐sponsored2
extending67, 108, 118–19, 136, 157
forms of part‐time employment lacking96
holiday205 n.
limited2
social12, 60, 67, 91 n.
statutory2, 4
unique to employment relationship193
welfare49 n. see also maternity benefits
Beneria, L.223, 224, 226
Benyon, H. D.22 n.
Berkovitch, N.37
Berlin39
Berne Convention (1906)41, 42, 45–6, 48, 56, 230
Bernstein, S.2
Bettio, F.21 n.
‘beyond employment’ approach21, 119, 208, 218–24, 225, 226 see also Supiot
Biagi, M.160 n.
bilateral employment relationship52–4
Bittman, M.76, 77
Block, R. N.91 n., 158 n.
Böheim, R.190
Böhning, W. R.83, 93 n.
Bosch, G.4, 5, 21, 22 n., 54, 55, 59, 74, 78, 97, 128, 130, 208, 215, 216, 227 n.
Bosniak, L. S.12, 22 n., 23 n., 224
Boulin, J.‐Y.55, 73, 97, 98, 119, 122 n.
bounded citizenship22 n.
Boushey, H.211
Boxer, M.30
Boyd, M.227 n.
Brannen, J.97
breadwinners7, 58, 66, 100, 105, 222
dual213, 216, 218
gendered assumptions about67
secondary69 see also male breadwinners
Briggs, C.114, 115
Britain6, 28, 57, 79
contracts of vs. for services200 n.
costs shared49 n.
demands for shorter work day29
human rights legislation168
income inequality97
labour regulation158 n.
low pay a characteristic feature of women's work (late 1800s and early 1990s)32
lower pay188, 198
minimum wages33
mothers not in paid labour force218
new legal categories of employment190–1
occupational health and safety168
part‐time employment98, 109
postnatal employment prohibited49 n.
protective legislation28, 30, 33, 34–6, 49 n., 146, 182, 191
self‐employment170, 171, 190, 206 n.
SER22 n., 65, 77
sex‐specific regulations34, 35
(p.293)
temporary employment128, 130, 138, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 162 n.
trade boards33
welfare benefits for women and children49 n.
working‐class women9, 49 n.
‘working woman’ and ‘working mother’ idea36 see also BECTU; DTI; GMB; TUC
Brodie, J.10
Brooks, B. T.122 n.
Brown, W.90 n.
Brubaker, R.10, 218
Brussels women's congress (1897)40
Bryson, V.39, 40, 50 n.
Buchanan, J.114
Büchtemann, C. F.5, 21 n.
Buckley, K.29
Burchell, B. J.97, 169, 172
Burgess, J.22 n., 74, 120, 126
Burri, S.22 n., 98, 99
Byrnes, M.112
cafés and restaurants108
Campbell, I.22 n., 74, 237
Canada15, 16, 22 n., 90 n., 119, 121, 128, 130, 158 n., 166, 206 n.
common‐law legal tests167
demands for shorter work day29
dependent contractors6, 201 n.
employment protection legislation78
female employment91 n.
full‐time permanent employment74, 76, 91 n., 209
hours of work92 n.
human rights legislation168
immigrants23 n.
maternity benefits207 n.
measuring total work238
minimum wage legislation34
need to protect migrant workers214
regulations directed at non‐standard employment13
occupational health and safety168
organization test200 n.
part‐time employment98, 99, 100
periods of rest and holidays codified56
political rights to racialized groups24 n.
public childcare99
self‐employment79, 80, 169, 170, 171
SER65, 74–80
sex‐specific regulations34
temporary migrant work227 n.
unpaid work92 n.
wage regulations34
women's work9, 76, 77
working hours6, 30 see also Ontario; Quebec; StatsCan
Cardiff Council (1998)136
career pay systems59
caregivers/caregiving7, 81, 209, 216, 230
challenging the organization of227
equalization of caregiving responsibilities217
functions integral to social reproduction213–14
gendered assumptions about67
marginalized in policy terms213
policies recognizing the social value of121
primary69
reducing or increasing hours for99
special problems faced by women68
stresses and strains of121–2
temporary migration of83
transformative visions of21, 208
Carnoy, M.100
case law167, 189, 204 n.
Cass, B.23 n., 104
casual workers/employment6, 18, 28, 56, 80, 95, 107–8, 120, 122 n., 123 n., 124 n., 143, 191, 213, 237
confining to intermittent and irregular employment (Australia)109–11
many part‐time workers are (Australia)96
precariousness19
regulation of (in Australia)105
subset of temporary employment106
Catanzariti, J.112
Cazes, S.130, 215
CESifo (Institute for Economic Research)162 n.
CEU (Council of the European Union)81, 127, 133, 134, 135, 136–7, 138–9, 150, 151, 152, 153–4, 155, 160 n., 161 n., 228 n., 229 n., 240
Equal Treatment Directive (1976)69, 70, 72 n., 82, 230 see also European Social Charter
Charnowitz, S.14
Charpentier, P.99
child labour abolition43, 85
(p.294) childcare112, 154, 160 n., 193, 217, 221, 238
gendered division of92 n.
hours per week92 n.
not enough labour to supply223
unpaid77, 92 n. see also public childcare
children:
barred from working in textile factories28
casual work56
housework done by92 n.
limited hours of work for29, 30
part‐time employment109
prohibiting from working at night39
protection of45
targeted by early laws27
China146
Christensen, K.210
CIETT (International Confederation of Private Employment Agencies)177, 178, 202 n., 235, 241
citizenship boundaries3, 9–11, 18, 22, 230
assumptions about212
employment norms and1, 9, 13, 21, 208, 227
fundamental changes in210
gender relations and223
need to recast222
tiered SER approach retains214
transforming209
civil rights11, 23 n., 27, 84, 217, 222, 223
delayed or qualified access to12
lack of24 n.
women's38
Clarke, L.5, 7, 55, 129
class relations, gendered8, 128
Clauwaert, S.141, 142, 145, 239
Clayton, A.6, 169, 172, 200 n.
Clement, W.6
Clerc, J. M.80
Close, G.228 n.
Cobble, D. S.121
codetermination163 n.
Cole, G. D. H.40
collective agreements2, 6, 66, 76, 91 n., 127, 139, 142, 149, 154, 158 n., 159 n., 162 n., 211
enterprise‐level114
fixed‐term work137
long tradition of regulation via161 n.
pan‐European134
regulating conditions of employment through62
sectoral143
collective bargaining14, 53, 64, 118, 123 n., 161 n., 194, 232
AWAs phased out in favour of117
enterprise‐level121
extended to dependent contractors168
institutionalization of128
right to61–2, 85, 102, 168, 174, 205 n., 206 n.
safeguards for206 n.
voluntary158 n.
Commission for Labor Cooperation (US)6, 75, 200 n.
common‐law tests71 n., 167, 184, 190, 200 n., 203 n.
competitive austerity73, 97
compulsory labour85
compulsory leave94 n.
Conciliation and Arbitration Court (Australia)105
conditions of employment, see employment conditions
Congrès Général des Sociétés Féministes39–40
Connell, J.126
Connelly, M. P.90 n.
continuous employment1, 5, 8, 18, 51, 52, 57, 58–61, 71, 104, 212, 231
degree of certainty of2, 21 n.
deterioration of213
entitlements prorated by proximity to88, 96
forms of employment diverging from SER's central pillar127
individuals encouraged to pursue128
institutionalization of6
long hours of214
not everyone aspires to210
notice of dismissal and206 n.
reasonable expectation of125 n.
contracts of employment, see employment contracts
Cooney, S.13, 86
CoOP (Country of Origin Principle)163 n.
Copenhagen42
Cordova, E.73
Cossman, B.90 n.
Council of Ministers (EU)81, 133
Cox, R.14, 43
CPS (US Current Population Survey)90–1 nn., 236
Cranford, C.5, 53, 79, 165, 199
(p.295) Creighton, B.122 n., 201 n.
Creutz, H.63, 72 n.
Crompton, R.65
Crouch, C.7
Daguerre, A.160 n.
daily and intergenerational reproduction7, 11, 12, 55, 60, 66, 89
dangerous substances/occupations34–6
Daübler, W.190, 201 n., 204 n., 205 n.
Davidov, G.6, 53, 126, 142, 145, 168, 169, 205 n.
Davies, P.6, 71 n., 167, 168, 192, 201 n.
Deacon, B.135
Deakin, S.3, 5, 14, 22 n., 24 n., 59, 128, 129, 130, 136, 158 n., 169
Decent Work programme (ILO 1999)85–7, 93 n., 215, 232
Del Conte, M.190
Delevingne, M.30
Delors, Jacques134
denizenship217–18, 223, 226, 228 n.
Denmark9, 79, 98, 170, 206 n., 238
convergence in working hours97
temporary employment132, 141, 142, 143, 144, 149, 161 n., 162 n.
Denning, Lord200 n.
depopulation37
deregulation90 n., 129, 151, 215
derogation150, 151, 157
DEWR (Australian Department of Employment and Workplace Relations)184, 185, 187
disabilities80
discrimination62, 66, 102, 191
elimination of67, 69, 85
freedom from174
permitted83
prevention of204 n.
rights to protections against195
diseases71 n., 174, 190
dismissal59, 60, 66, 131, 141, 153
arbitrary126, 128
collective agreements prohibiting91 n.
individual and collective193
protections against47, 159 n.
reinstating employees in position occupied before204 n.
restrictions on158 n., 159 n.
rights to notice of206 n.
threatened187, 204 n. see also unfair dismissal
District of Columbia33
divisions of labour9, 55, 57, 60, 101, 119
Doeringer, P. B.59, 91 n.
domestic work57, 61, 83, 186
domicile217
Draper, H.40
DTI (UK Department of Trade and Industry)195, 206 n.
DuBois, E.39
Duchêne, Gabrielle44
Duffy, A.78, 99, 101
Dunlop, J.167, 200 n.
Eastern Europe162 n.
ECJ (European Court of Justice)72 n., 139, 161 n.
Economic Council of Canada73
economic growth4, 86, 194
EEC (European Economic Community) Treaty (1957)13, 24 n., 148, 227–8 nn.
EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity)204 n., 217
EES (European Employment Strategy)24 n., 135, 136, 159 n., 160 n., 200 n.
EESC (EU Economic and Social Committee)149
EIRO (European Industrial Relations Observatory)187, 189, 190, 191, 204 n.
Ellis, E.72 n.
employability security129, 130
employers’ associations17
employers’ groups112, 177, 185, 194, 195
Employment Chapter (EU)135, 159 n.
employment conditions127, 137, 151, 161 n., 218, 223
agreements determining203 n.
basic working and148–9, 152, 153, 154, 155
fixed‐term work exclusion from138
non‐discrimination in148–9
regulation of62, 150
terms for59, 63 see also working conditions
(p.296) employment contracts5, 6, 52, 53, 55, 64, 72, 128, 137, 206 n., 212, 219, 220
casuals work under various types of106
continuity of105, 221, 226
economically dependent workers who do not have189
enforcing or terminating203 n.
fixed‐term136, 139
flexible135
indefinite19, 96, 153
lifetime employment effectively guaranteed91 n.
permanent153
personal192, 193
regulations governing the nature of141
unfair184, 185
employment creation86–7
employment norms11, 70, 102, 119, 156, 215
citizenship boundaries and1, 9, 13, 21, 209, 227
efforts to de‐gender69
gender‐neutral81
gender relations and1, 9, 13, 21, 208, 213, 227
integrated historical roots of227
longstanding exclusions from83
male8
open‐ended60
opportunity to access benefits and entitlements attached to10
stretching111–17, 212
sustained by norms of female caregiving17
temporal dimensions of100
uniform and measurable time associated with55
variation on219
employment protection135
directives on133
insiders benefit from high levels of193
reconfiguration of129–30
statutory128, 131
using fixed‐term workers to avoid161 n.
weakening129, 130
employment protection legislation6, 126
extensive78
strict/stringent/strong136, 194, 215
weak162 n.
Employment Relations Act (Germany 1999)205 n.
Employment Rights Act (UK 1996)191
enfranchisement17, 26
Engblom, S.52, 53
England, G.52
Enterprise‐Directorate of the EC188
entrepreneurship90 n., 167, 197, 207 n.
promoting188–9
Equal Treatment Directive (CEC 1976)69, 70, 72 n., 230
equality40, 62, 69, 76, 87, 221
gender/sex82, 133, 180
income222, 224
equality of opportunity81, 83, 174 see also EEO
Esping‐Andersen, G.8, 215, 216, 217
Essen summit (1994)135
ETUC (European Trade Union Congress)126, 147, 148, 149, 151, 157, 194–5
EU (European Union)13, 14, 74–80, 81, 180
citizenship222–3
full‐time permanent/paid employment91 n., 209
internal migration157
limiting external migration to227 n.
national regulations in141–3
policy interventions196
regulating temporary agency work140–57
self‐employment79, 183, 187, 191, 196, 197, 201 n.
temporary employment20, 131–2, 143–52, 214
third‐country nationals210, 227 n., 228 n.
unfair dismissal protections6 see also CEU; Council of Ministers; ECJ; Employment Chapter; EU Directives; Green Papers; LFS; OMC; White Papers; also under various headings below prefixed ‘EURO’(pean)
EU Directives13, 14, 25 n., 134
Collective Redundancies (1975)133
Employee Protection in Cases of Insolvency (1980)133
Equal Pay (1975)133
Equal Treatment (1976)133
Fixed‐Term Work (1999)15, 19, 78, 88, 89, 127, 133, 136, 147, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 161 n., 163 n., 174, 194, 231, 240
Part‐Time Work (1997)135–6, 138, 161 n.
Posted Workers (1996)148, 150–1, 155–6
Services in the Internal Market (2006)127, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 177, 181
Status of Third‐Country Nationals who are Residents (2003)223, 228 n.
Temporary Agency Work (2008)15, 19, 89, 127, 133, 147, 152, 155, 156, 174, 231
Transfer of Enterprises (1977)133
(p.297)
Working Time (1993)152, 159 n.
EUROCIETT16, 147–8, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155
European Agenda for Entrepreneurship189, 198
European Commission13, 15, 16, 131, 133, 138–40, 147, 149, 165, 218
European Employment Task Force193
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions131
European Parliament149, 152, 155, 156, 192, 196, 202 n., 206 n., 235
European Social Charter (1961)82, 134, 232
EUROSTAT91 n., 92 n., 172, 202 n., 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241
Everingham, C.8, 55
Expert Group on Flexicurity188
Factory Acts (1800s):
Britain28
Canada29–30
Factory and Shops Acts (Australia 19th‐ & early 20th‐centuries)29, 32, 48 n., 49 n.
Factory and Workshop Acts (UK 1891–1901)35, 36
Fagan, C.7, 78, 98
Fair Labour Standards Act (US 1938)200 n.
Fair Work Act (South Australia 1994)203 n.
family/household28, 41, 46, 47, 48 n., 56, 57, 61, 102, 228 n.
allowances for64
centrality of36, 40
dirty and dangerous work for35
heterosexual8
immigrant218, 227 n.
nuclear37, 213
problems of69
reconciliation of work life and193
responsibilities80, 95, 100, 101, 103, 230
right to take leave for emergencies112
social wage designed to support5, 51–2, 80
work injurious and detrimental to44 see also AIRC (Family Provisions test‐case); breadwinners; caregivers
family wage8, 32, 36
Federal Labour Code (Canada)199
Federal Metal Case (Australia 2000)109–10, 111
female caregivers/ caregiving8, 9, 11, 12, 18, 26–8, 37, 55, 59, 65
consolidation of43–8
norms of17, 32, 52, 56, 82, 103, 105, 108
responsibility for33
role strengthened and affirmed66
feminism/feminists3, 7, 41, 44, 222, 227
bourgeois40
galvanized against protective legislation42
liberal27, 38, 40
pursuit of suffrage49 n.
scholarship on SER26, 101
socialist40
working‐class27, 38
fertility rates37
Figart, D. M.33, 34, 100
Finland77 n., 79, 93 n., 236, 237, 238, 240
fixed‐term workers132
part‐time employment98
self‐employment170
temporary employment131, 132, 142, 143, 144, 146
fixed‐term work1, 20, 79, 104, 106, 126, 133, 134, 135, 142, 143, 145, 158 n., 201, 215, 239, 240, 241
average EU share140
collective agreements on137
contracts among women140
earnings/income132, 162 n.
estimate of93, 159 n.
exclusion from employment conditions138
increasing flexibility through fostering199
less desirable to employers162 n.
non‐casual105
non‐discrimination principle137
particularly prominent in EU132
protections and benefits19, 213
regulating87–9, 156
uncertainty characterizing139
women's share78 see also EU Directives
Flexibility and Security Act (Netherlands 1999)158–9 nn.
flexible accumulation73, 89 n., 169
flexicurity160 n., 167, 183, 188, 193–4, 195
Foner, P. S.31
forced labour85
Forde, C.145, 162 n.
Fordism3, 4, 21 n., 51, 53, 89 n., 95, 169, 218
transition to flexible accumulation73
Fordist‐Keynesianism95
Förster, M. F.201 n.
FPC (Australian Fair Pay Commission)114, 124 n. see also AFPCS
(p.298) Frager, R. A.30, 34
France22 n., 77
ban on night work for women39–40
complex legislation30
distribution of work97
maternity allowances37
part‐time employment98
presumption of subordination204 n.
prohibition35
protection treaty with Italy50 n.
protective legislation35
self‐employment170, 171, 190
sex‐specific regulations34
temporary employment131, 132, 140, 141, 143, 144, 146
unpaid childcare92 n.
weekly working hours6
welfare benefits for women and children49 n.
women in employment and centrality of family36
women in part‐time employment98
Frances, R.29, 34, 48 n.
Fraser, N.6, 23 n., 217, 222, 224
Fredman, S.28, 29, 33, 49 n., 119
free markets/free trade90 n.
Freedland, M.6, 14, 24 n., 192
freedom of association61–2, 63, 194, 228 n., 232
promoting14, 85
freedom of contract17, 28, 33, 177
freedom of exit/movement84
freelance work6, 165, 191, 198
employer‐coordinated190, 204 n.
Frenette, M.171
Fruit Pickers case (Australia 1912)105
Fudge, J.5, 6, 21 n., 22 n., 52, 53, 71 n., 79, 90 n., 119, 121, 157, 165, 167, 168, 169, 172, 197, 199, 200 n., 201 n., 207 n., 219
full‐time permanent employment86, 88, 120
decline of74–7
deterioration of80
fostering alternatives to100
protections available to107, 113
security and durability of91 n.
trends in90 n.
functional flexibility201 n.
FWA (Australian Fair Work Act 2009)116–17, 123 n., 124–5 nn.
Gabriel, C.12
gangmasters162 n., 182
Gangmasters (Licensing) Act (UK 2004)146, 182
gender contract3, 6–7, 10, 51, 221
continuing adjustments to81–2
crumbling18, 52, 65, 81–2, 84, 87
divisions of labour intrinsic to55
dual breadwinning213
early national and international labour regulation26–50
legacy of118
male breadwinner/female caregiver11, 12, 18, 59–60, 103, 209,
need for217, 222
post‐industrial216
SER and8–9, 12
tensions in70
gender inequality81, 100, 180, 211
exacerbated176, 179
new patterns of120
gender interests119
gender neutrality28, 31, 35, 48, 68, 70, 81
gender relations17, 209, 230
assumptions about212
citizenship boundaries and223
developing visions for224
employment norms and1, 9, 13, 21, 208, 213, 227
fundamental changes in210
possibilities for transforming222
gendered differentiation22 n.
Geneva16, 63, 233, 234, 249, 252
Germany22 n., 77, 79, 201 n., 236, 237, 238, 242
employee/worker‐like persons168, 190, 201 n.
laws and policies204 n., 205 n.
maternity36–7
part‐time employment98
self‐employment170, 171, 190, 204 n., 206 n.
temporary employment130, 131, 132, 141, 142, 143, 144, 149, 161 n., 162 n., 163 n.
welfare benefits for women and children49 n.
women41, 42
Gerson, K.99
Gill, S.14, 73, 90 n.
girls30, 34
globalization86, 90 n. see also ILO Declarations
GMB Union (UK)195, 198
Goetschy, J.133, 160 n.
Gordon, D. M.91 n.
(p.299) Gordon, L.22 n., 23 n., 66
Gray, A.135, 160 n.
Great Depression (1930s)57
Greece80, 98, 132, 142, 144
self‐employment170, 171
Green Papers (EU)134, 155, 156, 188, 189, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199
Grunow, D.65
Guest, D.30, 34
guest workers23 n., 83, 84
Guild, E.228 n.
Guillari, S.213
Hall, S.10
Hammar, T.217
hard laws13, 133, 160 n.
hardship and privation58, 80
harmonization14, 116, 195, 228 n.
regulations fostering24 n.
shift away from159 n.
Harvester Judgement (Australia 1907)105
Harvey, M.4, 5
Hasenau, M.60
Hassim, S.218, 223, 224
Havana63
Hayek, F. von90 n.
hazardous working processes47
health130
checks82
insurance37, 212, 227 n.
health and safety30, 102, 110, 118, 123 n., 134, 137, 145, 149, 155, 168, 192, 193, 195, 204 n., 206 n.
gaps in172
Heenan, J.86
Held, D.10
Hepple, B.13, 14, 24 n., 70
Heron, C.29
Higgins (Justice)105
HILDA (Household, Income and Labour Dynamics) Survey90 n., 107, 122 n. 123 n.
Hilden, P. J.30, 31
Hindess, B.22 n.
Hochschild, A.77, 214
Hodgetts, J. E.23 n.
holidays56
with pay6, 64 see also ILO Conventions
homeworkers1, 6, 18, 56, 61, 81, 173
compensation for production‐related costs202 n. see also ILO Conventions
Honeycutt, K.40
hours of work18, 48, 64, 84, 91 n., 92 n., 101, 116, 203 n.
convergence in97
erratic97
flexible202 n.
legislation governing28, 37
limited29, 30, 47
reduced5, 58, 69
regulations governing27, 29, 30, 31
shorter100, 222
unpredictable or indeterminate4 see also ILO Conventions
housework77, 92 n.
Howard, John114, 184, 185
Howe, R.29, 32
human rights84, 168, 192
basic83, 225
fundamental14
guaranteeing exercise and enjoyment of69 see also Universal Declaration
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Australia)115
Humphries, J.7, 34
Hunter, R.23 n.
Hutchins, B. L.28, 32, 35, 48 n., 49 n.
Hyde, A.6, 22 n., 78, 91 n., 158 n., 165, 172, 210
Hyland, J.163 n.
IALL (International Association of Labour Legislation)27, 39, 42, 43, 46, 230, 232, 249
first official congress (1901)41
ICA (Independent Contractors Act, Australia 2006)185–7, 203–4 nn.
ILC (International Labour Conferences)16, 44, 47, 48, 56, 71 n., 172, 175, 233, 249–53
Organizing Committee45
illegal activities83, 146, 156, 182, 185
ILO (International Labour Organization)30, 51, 65, 122 n., 249–53
Commission on International Labour Legislation43–4, 45
Commission on the Employment of Women45–6
Conference on Migration in its Various Forms (1927)63
Constitution (1919)24 n., 61, 232
International Emigration Committee63
International Labour Code13, 17, 26, 41, 43, 45, 46, 52
(p.300)
International Protection of Women Workers (1921)26, 38, 41–8
Women's Work under Labour Law (1932)46–7 see also IALL; ILC; IMEC; PIACT; also under following headings prefixed ‘ILO’
ILO Committee of Experts72 n., 73, 82, 85, 175–6, 178, 201 n., 203 n., 233
ILO Conventions14, 24 n.
Discrimination [Employment and Occupation] (1958)67, 68–9, 70, 94 n., 102, 176, 180
Equal Opportunities and Equal Treatment for Men and Women Workers with Family Responsibilities (1981)81
Equal Remuneration (1951)66, 230
Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) (1925)63
Fee‐Charging Employment Agencies (1933)54, 142
Forty‐Hour Week (1935)58
Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize (1948)62
Holidays with Pay (1936/1970)61, 71 n.
Home Work (1996)173, 174, 176, 196
Hours of Work [Commerce and Offices] (1930)71 n.
Hours of Work [Industry] (1919)56, 71 n.
Maternity Protection (1919/1948/1952/1990/2000)46, 66, 67, 68, 71 n., 81–2, 86, 94 n., 180, 230
Migrant Work [Supplementary Provisions] (1975)82–3, 94 n.
Migration for Employment (1939/1949)63, 64, 82
Night Work [Women] (1919/(1934/1948/1990)46, 57–8, 71 n., 81–2, 230
Organization of the Employment Service (1948)48
Part‐Time Work (1993/1994)15, 19, 88, 89, 96, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 118, 120, 137, 212
Private Employment Agencies (1997)141, 142, 148, 174, 178, 182, 202 n., 231, 233
Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining (1949)62
Social Security [Minimum Standards] (1952)67
Unemployment (1919/1934)5, 60–1, 62, 63
Weekly Rest (1921)56
ILO Declarations:
Equal Opportunity and Treatment of Women Workers (1975)81
Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (Social Declaration) (1998)24 n., 85–7
Social Justice for a Fair Globalization (2008)86, 87, 215, 232
ILO Recommendations
Employment [Women with Family Responsibilities] (1965)68, 69, 81
Employment Relationship (2006)15, 20, 89, 164 n., 166, 176–83, 185, 187, 193, 196–7, 200 n., 226, 231, 233
Holidays with Pay (1954)71 n.
Lead Poisoning [Women and Children] (1919)47
Organization of the Employment Service (1948)48
Part‐Time Work (1994)89
Reciprocity of Treatment of Foreign Workers (1919)62, 230
Unemployment (1919)54, 60, 62, 63
Utilization of Spare Time (1924)57
ILO Resolutions:
Equal Opportunities for Men and Women in Employment (1985)81
Self‐Employment Promotion (1990)172–3
ILO World Employment Report (1996/1997)92 n.
IMEC (Industrialized Marked Economy Countries)16, 166–7, 179, 180, 182
financial contribution200 n.
lessons from196–9
regulating self‐employment in183–96
immigrants:
associated with social reproduction70
destined for permanent residency65, 82
irregular workers/undocumented persons83
preferential treatment for64
self‐employment common among80, 171
social rights of23 n., 218
temporary agency work146 see also migrants/migrant workers
immigration policies12, 83
differentiating immigrants by entry category11
restrictive63
immorality35
inclusive citizenship122, 224, 225
income168, 189, 191, 198, 219
adequate2, 120, 134
average weekly162 n.
(p.301)
basic216
dispersion rates201 n.
distribution of135, 171
fixed‐term work162 n.
high4, 117, 223, 225, 226
loss of220
low120, 130, 205 n., 207 n., 224, 226
reduction of221
sex‐based differences108
sufficient197 see also wages
income gap123 n.
income inequality:
relatively high levels of97
within‐nation201 n.
individual liberty90 n.
individualization221
industrial relations7, 10, 15, 22 n., 116, 120, 122 n., 186
bifurcated121
centralization of115, 118
consolidating115, 123 n.
unitary system of114 see also AIRC; EIRO; SAIRC
Industrial Relations Acts:
NSW (1996)203 n.
Queensland (1999)184, 202 n.
inequalities33, 44, 157, 207 n.
group‐based70
income222, 224
leisure time217
longstanding156
remedying limited forms of70
wage211 see also gender inequality
infant mortality37
injustice80
insolvency20, 133
internal labour markets59
break‐up of91
decline of210
erosion of130
International Congress of Working Women45, 46
International Council of Women38–9, 42, 44, 50 n.
international labour regulations13–15, 17, 18, 20, 26–50, 177, 212, 230–2
characterizing181
constructing and consolidating SER in51–72
dynamics of SER‐centrism in73–94
international law14, 93 n.
International Organization for Migration210
International Women's Day42
Ireland98, 189, 190, 204 n., 238, 241
self‐employment170, 171, 189
temporary employment133, 138, 141, 142, 143, 144, 149–50, 161–2 nn., 163 n.
Isin, E. F.225
Italy50 n., 77, 80, 98, 140, 142, 144
flexicurity195
quasi‐subordinate workers190
self‐employment170, 171, 206 n.
itinerant workers84, 93 n.
Jacobs, A.141, 145
Jacobs, J.99
Japan98, 166
Jeffery, M.134, 139, 159 n.
Jefferys, S.98–9
Jenson, J.35–6, 37, 49 n.
Jessop, B.21 n., 90 n.
job certainty96
job inactivity55, 95, 97
job tenure2, 130, 157, 220, 221
Junor, A.9
Karst, K.22 n.
Kautsky, Louise40
Kenner, J.160 n.
Kessler‐Harris, A.22 n., 23 n., 28, 31, 34, 35, 36
Keynesianism3, 4, 21 n., 51, 73, 95, 135
abandonment of policies219
demise of90 n.
Kilpatrick, C.24 n.
Kirton, J. J.13
Klaus, A.37
Klem, M. C.31, 49 n.
Kok Report (European Employment Task Force 2003)160 n., 193
Koven, S.37, 49 n.
Kristeva, J.8
Kuusisto, A.143, 162 n.
labour‐market insecurity95, 166
capacity to moderate127
concerns about74, 80
dimensions of2, 17, 20, 141, 169, 184, 208, 225
efforts to limit118
entitlements designed to mitigate106
formal recognition of women's high levels of113
high levels of98, 197
part‐time workers109, 118
(p.302)
strategies aimed at minimizing111
women213
labour‐market regulation107, 127
urgent need for radical rethinking of208
labour‐market rigidities129
labour‐market segmentation199
reduced136
strong gender dimension194
labour power54, 58, 95, 165, 167, 198
constraints on market circulation of53
rules governing the utilization of55
labour process7, 23
control over2, 21 n., 55, 130, 201 n.
labour protection152, 165, 175, 183, 207 n., 208, 215
access to101
measures difficult to implement87
primary/principal basis for86, 199
labour supply11, 12
migrant labour as a component of226
work organization and3, 61
Langille, B.5, 14, 22 n., 85, 169, 227 n.
Larner, W.90 n.
Larsen, T.160 n.
Law, D.14, 73
Lawrence, F.163 n.
lead47
League of Nations41, 54
Labour Charter (1919)43, 53
Labour Office45
Lee, E.43, 73
Lee, J.32
Le Grand, Daniel38
Leighton, P.21 n.
leisure time4, 56, 57, 60, 80–1, 217, 222
Levin‐Waldman, O. M.33
Lewis, J.7, 8, 9, 28–9, 33, 34, 35, 36, 65, 98, 213, 217, 22
LFS (Labour Force Surveys)90 n., 93 n., 143–4, 158 n., 161 n., 162 n., 236, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242
liberalization90 n.
lifetime hours119
Lipow, A.40
Lisbon Summit (2000)160 n.
Lister, R.10, 12, 23 n., 217, 223, 224, 225, 227 n.
Lochner v. New York (US Supreme Court 1905)31
Lokiec, P.204 n.
Lonnroth, J.85, 93 n., 160 n.
Lorentsen, E.34
low‐waged jobs211
Lowell, B. L.227 n.
Lubin, C. R.45, 49 n.
Luxembourg140, 142, 144, 238, 241, 242
part‐time employment98
self‐employment170, 171
Luxembourg Council (1997)135
Luxton, M.7, 9, 99
luxury industries30
Maastricht Treaty (1992)134
McCallum, M.28, 34
McCallum, R.105, 114
MacDonald, M.76
McLaughlin, E.9
MacPherson, E.6
Mahaim, E.13, 38, 39
Mahon, R.160 n.
male breadwinners12, 18, 26–7, 29, 37, 55, 56, 65, 103, 209, 230
claims to continuity or permanent employment106
division of labour between female household managers and9
masculine biography associated with11
norms of52, 108, 121
provisions permitting governments to favour68
security to105
wage concerns8, 32, 36
Malone, C.35
mandatory leave compensation37
manufacturing industries41
marketization90 n.
Marsden, D.4, 5, 54, 59, 74
Marshall, T. H.10, 23 n., 28
mass production21 n., 89 n.
Massachusetts49 n.
maternity24, 44, 45, 57, 82, 103, 205 n.
protections26, 36–7, 66
sex‐specific regulations addressing17 see also ILO Conventions
maternity benefits47, 157, 206–7 nn.
costs shared49 n.
lower188, 198
mothers not in paid labour force218
maternity leave53, 102, 117, 192–3, 206–7 nn., 219
employers barred from dismissing women on66
proposal to extend206–7 nn.
medical care67, 227 n.
Meehan, E.225, 228 n.
Melbourne29
methodological nationalism10
(p.303) Michel, S.37, 49 n.
Michon, F.141, 143, 145, 162 n.
middle‐wage work211
migrants/migrant workers62–5, 126, 180, 226, 230
abuses of166, 181, 182
autonomous legal status as individuals225
entry categories for209–10
female72 n.
gangmasters engaging162 n.
illegal146, 156
immigrants and23 n.
internal EU157
multi‐tiered framework for protection82, 84, 87
non‐western background131
potentially severe consequences for151
powerlessness experienced by23 n.
prevalence of precarious employment223
social rights of227
temporary146, 209–10, 214, 241
women care workers214, 217, 223–4 see also UN Conventions
Millerand‐Colliard Law (France 1892)30
Mines and Collieries Act (UK 1842)34–5
mines and quarries41
minimum standards116, 118, 120, 121, 160 n., 195
minimum wages33–4, 53, 65, 105, 117, 124 n., 125 n., 174, 191, 195
enforceable32
gangmasters charged with violating laws162 n.
guarantees206 n.
Mishel, L.210, 212
Mitchell, R.6, 169, 172, 200 n.
Mitterrand, François134
Molyneux, M.119
monetarism90 n.
Montana91 n., 158 n.
Montreal51
Morecambe Bay146
Morris, L.227 n.
Morse, D. A.43
Mückenberger, U.14, 22 n., 128, 129, 130, 158 n., 169
Muller v. Oregon (US Supreme Court 1908)31, 33
multiple jobs2
Murray, J.13, 14, 57, 86, 101, 102, 114, 139, 161 n., 221
Mutari, E.33, 34, 100
Myles, J.216
NAPSAs (Australian National Agreement Preserving State Awards)123 n.
Nardone, T.73
National Consumers’ League (US)31
National Council of Women of Canada34
National Employment Standards (Australia)117, 118, 120
National Insurance Act (UK 1911)49 n.
National Pay Equity Coalition (Australia)115
nationality10–11, 52, 64, 70, 72 n., 222
citizenship and227–8 nn.
exclusions based on18, 82
restrictions on employment based on68
naturalization64
Neilsen, M. A.184, 185
neo‐Fordism90 n.
neoliberalism18, 73, 129, 135, 158 n.
disciplinary90 n.
Netherlands22 n., 79
part‐time employment98, 99
self‐employment170
temporary employment131, 140, 143, 144, 146, 158–9 nn.
New Hampshire31
New South Wales111, 186, 203 n., 234, 235
legislation protecting owner‐drivers186
public sector staff123 n.
Royal Commission on Female and Juvenile Labour in Factories and Shops (1911–12)32
Secure Employment test‐case16, 109–11, 113, 115
unfair contract laws184, 185 see also Unions NSW
New York36
New Zealand41, 98, 166
NGOs (nongovernmental organizations)109
night work8, 28–31, 44, 56, 145, 162 n.
legislation on33, 37
limitations on26, 47, 58
opposition to57
prohibitions on38, 39–40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 82
regulations governing17, 27, 32, 41
restricting46
sex‐specific regulations/ban on17, 82 see also ILO Conventions
Nine Hours Leagues (Canada 1872)29
Nolan, P.4, 5, 59
non‐discrimination18, 67–70, 81, 87, 88, 136, 137–8, 147, 148
emphasis on promoting139
(p.304)
limiting to pay and working time149
new protections aimed at86
non‐standard employment2–3, 17, 87, 102
expansion of70, 78–80, 90 n.
gendered18, 78
international regulations directed at13
patterns and trends in73
tendency to conflate precarious and16
women's prevalence in81
Nordic countries36, 217 see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden
normative model of employment3–6, 18–19, 48, 68
emergent47
SER as15, 27, 51
norms4, 10, 14, 17, 32, 43, 52, 56, 67, 103, 105, 108, 121
female caregiving82
international24 n.
political and legal6–7 see also employment norms; social norms
Norway46, 166, 178, 180, 181, 189, 203 n.
notice of termination116
Occupational Health and Safety Act (US 1970)200 n.
O'Connor, J.23 n., 160 n.
O'Donnell, A.105
OECD countries6
instability in employment relationship166
part‐time employment78, 92 n., 96, 97, 98, 99, 103, 238
self‐employment79–80, 166, 169, 170–2, 201 n., 241
temporary employment126, 127, 239
unemployment215
Offen, K. M.39
O'Grady, J.121
oil embargoes73
OMC (EU Open Method of Coordination)24 n., 85, 135, 160 n.
on‐call hours97
on‐the‐job training126
employer support for5
investments in59
O'Neill, S.125 n.
Ong, A.90 n., 224
Ontario29, 30
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum‐Exporting Countries)73
O'Reilly, J.7, 78, 98
Orloff, A. S.22 n.
Ostner, I.7
outsourced work203 n.
overtime32, 64, 117, 162 n.
reasonable124 n.
self‐funding through221
Owen, Robert38
Owens, R.106, 111
paid leave102
Panama56
parasubordinate employment191–2, 193
parental leave113, 123 n., 124 n., 193, 219, 221
unpaid114, 116, 120
Paris38, 39, 41, 42, 43
part‐time employment1, 17, 34, 81, 135, 160–1, 219, 225, 227
casual213
definitions of92, 237, 238
gendered character of213
income2
labour market insecurity109, 118
measuring237
nature and significance of19
peripheralization associated with98
precarious character of16, 89
protections and benefits for workers212
regulating15, 87, 89, 95–125
weak set of entitlements118
women in9, 78, 88 see also EU Directives; ILO Conventions
Pateman, C.7, 22 n.
Patrias, C.30, 34
Pay and Classification Scale (Australia)114
Pearce, D.23 n.
Pearson, R.224, 226
Pedersen, S.37
pensions53, 91 n., 160 n., 188, 192, 198, 199
basic218
employment‐linked130
improved provisions207 n.
minimum216
reformed system190
scheme to cover contributions204 n.
people of colour12, 24 n.
permanency4, 6, 11, 18, 51, 75, 130, 239
casuals granted the right to convert to110
challenges to the notion of136
deterioration of131
key proxy for237
promise of59
(p.305)
temporary employment typically defined by lack of152
Perrons, D.97, 100, 121
Perulli, A.52, 167, 169, 172, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 200 n., 205 n., 206 n.
Peters, M.90 n.
Philadelphia Declaration (1944)51, 53–4, 61, 232
PIACT (International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment 1975)80, 81, 84, 87, 232
Picchio, A.7–8, 9, 77, 100, 119, 122, 129
pieceworkers116–17, 173
Pierson, R. R.23 n.
Pikkov, D.227 n.
Piore, M. J.22 n., 59, 91 n., 130, 201 n.
Pocock, B.9, 65, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110
Polder Model158 n.
Politakis, G. P.82
political economy35
comparative7
feminist3, 7, 227
global14
integrated14
political rights11, 27, 84, 217, 222, 223
delayed or qualified access to12
denizens typically lack218
women's38, 41
Polivka, A.6, 73, 210
Pollert, A.101, 158 n.
Porter, A.23 n.
Portugal79, 80, 93 n., 236, 238, 241
part‐time employment98
self‐employment170, 171
temporary employment131, 132, 140, 141–2, 144, 145, 146, 162 n.
post‐Fordism90 n.
postnatal leave37
precarious employment20, 85, 87, 225
addressing the gender of216–17
concern about the spread of73
dimensions of17
labour market membership would limit226
policies addressing15
prevalence among migrant workers holding EU citizenship223
relationship between non‐standard and2–3, 16
responses to13, 14, 15, 18
SER‐centric approaches to limiting119
pregnancy35
prenatal leave37
private employment agencies174, 176, 202 n.
obviating the need for54
prohibiting certain types of141
strict regulation of54
unscrupulous activities of54 see also CIETT; ILO Conventions
privatization90 n.
rights vulnerable to221
Probert, B.9, 100
Procacci, G.70
profit‐maximizing59
profitability55
proletarian women40
propaganda63
protective legislation30, 34–6, 49 n.
feminists galvanized against42
public childcare216
limited98, 99
public holidays105, 116, 123 n.
public sector employment99, 111, 139
Public Sector Employment and Management Act (NSW 2002)111
Puerto Rico33
Pupo, N.78, 99, 101
Quack, S.5, 21 n.
quasi‐subordinate employment190, 191, 193
Quebec29, 214
Queensland184, 185, 186, 202 n.
racialization22 n., 24 n.
partial citizenship12
Reaganomics90 n.
real wages:
erosion of129
falling91 n., 210
reciprocity62, 63, 64, 228 n.
recruitment63
redundancy pay116
Regent, S.160 n.
Reiter, E.99
remuneration2, 3, 4, 51, 55, 59, 64, 84, 89, 97, 100, 165, 166, 167, 198, 203 n., 209, 210, 213, 215
equal18, 45, 65–6, 85
fair134
joint and several liability due to homeworkers202 n.
rules on205 n.
SER‐centric responses to precariousness in work for172–83 see also ILO Conventions
(p.306) residence permits223, 228 n.
rest periods46, 56
retail trade108
retirement60
compromised ability to save for207 n.
Rickard, J.32
rights64, 196
anti‐discrimination206 n.
citizenship218
collective bargaining61–2, 85, 102, 168, 174, 205 n., 206 n.
cultural83
employment11, 205 n., 222, 223
extension of190
floor of128, 194, 195, 206 n.
fundamental102
inferior65
limited or conditional12
policies advancing a hierarchy of11
private property90 n.
procedural201 n.
public157
reciprocal228 n.
substantive201 n.
trade union83
Riley, J.185, 186, 203 n.
risk‐aversion188
Roberts, K.91 n., 158 n.
Rodgers, G.2, 4, 5, 21 n.
Roediger, D. R.31
Rome63
Rose, N.90 n.
Rose, S. O.28–9, 33, 34, 35, 36
Rossilli, M. G.70
Rubery, J.6, 7, 21 n., 54, 55, 78, 97, 98, 160 n.
Rupp, L. J.39, 49 n., 50 n.
sabbaticals221
Sabel, C. F.201 n.
safety nets110, 111, 116, 117, 121, 123 n.
Sainsbury, D.7, 10, 23 n., 218
Sainte Croix, Avril de44
SAIRC (South Australian Industrial Relations Commission)109, 123 n.
Sarina, T.185, 186, 203 n.
Sassen‐Koob, S.8, 11–12, 23 n., 226
Sayer, L. C.77
Scandinavia42 see also Nordic countries
Schmid, G.220, 221
school holidays112
Sciarra, S.191, 192, 193, 206 n.
Scotland50 n.
seasonal workers60, 80, 84, 93 n., 101, 102, 106, 239, 240
Second International (1889/1893)39, 40
Ségol, B.151
self‐employment1, 2, 16, 19, 53, 62, 102, 104, 105, 156, 209, 231, 238
access to228
central characteristic of3
dependent6, 155, 219
fostering various forms of97
insecurities confronting20
paid leave124 n.
part‐time17
regulating20, 87–9, 165–207
rise of20
solo79–80, 170, 171, 172, 194, 242
Sengenberger, W.13, 14, 24–5 nn.
Sennett, R.129
SER (standard employment relationship)4–5, 6, 15, 51, 65, 158 n.
alternatives to208–29
conception of citizenship associated with11
construction of1, 13, 51–72
deregulation of215
destabilization at crux of167–72
development of126
deviation from1, 3
economic, psychological, and legal settlements upholding128
emergence of10, 95
existence threatened166
feminist scholarship on26
flexible21, 208, 215–18, 221
gender contract associated with8–9, 12
gendered foundations of27
institutional variation17
labour markets and17, 80–7, 95, 119, 127, 183, 214
male breadwinner/female caregiver contract intertwined under12
partial eclipse of73–94
preparing the ground for48
protections and benefits identified with127
stripping of its exclusions65–70
tiered21, 212–14
wage regulation under129 see also ILO Recommendations; SER‐centrism
SER‐centrism3, 4, 73–94, 96, 105, 127, 156, 157, 212, 214, 218 (p.307)
approach to regulation197
corrective to problems with220
limits of20, 89, 118, 183, 196, 213
logic of14, 89
potential antidote to shortcomings of119
regulation dislodging227
responses to precariousness100–3, 133–40, 172–93
tiered effects of20, 208
sex‐specific measures31–2, 34, 35, 38, 42, 46, 47, 52, 68, 70
night work17, 82
sexual harassment205 n.
sham arrangements186–7, 197
Sharma, N.225, 227 n.
Shaver, S.23 n.
Shklar, J.24 n.
sickness/sick leave67, 123 n.
Single European Act (1986)134, 159 n.
Slater, G.145, 162 n.
Small Business Fair Dismissal Code (Australia)125 n.
Smith, M. P.227 n.
Smith‐Vidal, S.145
Social Declaration (Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work) (ILO 1998)24 n., 85–7, 232
social drawing rights119, 220, 222, 225, 226, 227
conditionality attached to221
reserves necessary to exercise221
social insurance8, 53, 67, 198, 222
payment of contributions174, 199
social norms6–7, 16
engendered and sustained4
social policy87, 97, 160 n.
gendered regimes7
social protection62, 88, 133, 159 n., 190, 192, 193, 195, 203 n., 212, 215, 219, 228 n.
access to101, 106, 107, 113, 172, 201 n., 224
basis for21, 165, 175, 199, 208, 215
concern to preserve206 n.
consequences of the absence of175
enhanced measures of87
extending198, 199, 227 n.
‘independent’216
measures difficult to implement87
need for205 n.
strong systems220, 222
targeted spending on135
well‐developed188
social relations2, 58
social reproduction7–8, 88, 90 n.
caregiving functions integral to213–14
gendered processes of81
immigrants70
market production and3
neglecting18, 70, 81, 82
principal site of9
recipe for crisis in210
responsibility for70
tasks fundamental/essential to82, 221
tensions in214, 217
social rights11, 23 n., 217, 218, 222, 223, 227
citizenship226
recast221 see also social drawing rights
social security64, 83, 87, 205 n.
adapting the scope and coverage of215
benefits12, 60, 67
improving for the self‐employed189
occupational schemes152
prorated schemes103
protections related to102
scheme to cover contributions204 n.
shrinking funds204 n.
special fund for employer‐coordinated freelance work190 see also ILO Conventions
social wage4, 12, 47, 67, 118
contracting protections210
designed to support adult and family/dependants5, 51–2, 80
employer‐provided benefits211
entitlements properly flow through single wage‐earner61
foremost benefit linked to employment212
norms surrounding103
various benefits6
workers without benefits212
Socialist International Labour Congress (Paris 1889)39
socialist women's activity40
socialization of production90 n.
socially disadvantaged groups65, 67
soft laws13, 160 n.
sole traders6
Solidarists49 n.
solidarity221
South America146
South Australian Clerks Award (2000/2002)106, 109, 111, 123 n.
Soviet Union210
Soysal, Y. N.11, 12, 23 n., 217, 223
Spain58, 77 n., 79, 215, 236, 237, 238 (p.308)
assigned and structural workers162 n.
economic crisis (1975)158 n.
part‐time employment98
self‐employment170, 171
temporary employment131, 132, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 158 n., 162 n.
specified‐employment workers93 n., 95
Spee, C.7
stagflation73
Staines, J.199, 204 n.
standard‐setting41, 80
standardized working time5, 18, 51, 52, 54–8, 85, 212, 231
central to emergence of the SER95
deterioration of96–100, 165
Standing, G.21 n., 65, 74, 86, 94 n., 129, 221
Stanford, J.130
Stasiulis, D. K.10, 12, 83
state intervention29, 33
absence of34
StatsCan90 n., 92 n., 236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 242
Stewart, A.106, 200 n.
Stewart, M. L.30
Stone, K. V. W.5, 6, 14, 24 n., 59, 74, 78, 91 n., 129, 130, 201 n., 210
Storrie, D.162 n.
students109
subordination/subordinate employment160 n., 165, 173, 174, 179, 189, 192, 202 n.
continental European test of71 n.
high level of53
hybrid test for establishing175
increasing weight of201 n.
means of achieving5
moving away from the notion of197
presumption of190, 204 n.
self‐employment and167, 168, 169, 191, 196, 204 n.
situations where it is difficult to establish190
suffrage38, 40, 41, 42, 49 n.
Sunday rest30
Supiot, A.5, 7, 8, 21, 55, 74, 96–7, 119, 157, 165, 169, 197, 208, 218–21
supranational citizenship224–5, 226, 229
sweated trades32, 33
Sweden9, 22 n., 77, 79, 93 n., 189, 236, 237, 238, 242
denizenship218
part‐time employment98
self‐employment170, 171, 189
temporary employment131, 132, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 161 n.
Swepston, L.13
Swinnerton, K. A.91 n., 158 n.
Switzerland166
Sydney29
Taylorized production169
technical assistance80
Teeple, G.4, 22 n., 90 n.
temporary agency work1, 53, 78, 91 n., 126, 128, 131, 132, 135–6, 158 n., 159 n., 160 n., 161 n., 169, 178, 182, 185, 196, 198, 201 n., 213
characterized79, 127
classification uncertain205 n.
difficulties securing protections19–20
distinction between other triangular employment relationships and202 n.
labour market insecurity141
legitimizing142
limiting precariousness in157
migrant workers214
once banned in many jurisdictions209
regulating87–9
regulation of140–57
restrictions loosened on142
safety and health134
sex differentiation in133
wages162 n. see also EU Directives
temporary employment2, 3, 16, 19
casual employment treated as subset of106
expansion of78
migrant workers in88
part‐time17
regulating15, 126–64
uncertainty of3
weak set of entitlements118
women in78–9, 88 see also temporary agency work
Thatcherism90 n.
Thomas, A.13
Tilly, C.21 n., 97
Tiraboschi, M.190
Total Quality Management201 n.
toxic substances35
Trade Boards Act (UK 1909)33
(p.309) trade unions2, 21 n., 28, 64, 83, 123–4 nn.
federations17, 109
leaders16, 29
membership rates low210–11
need to redefine functions219
protective labour legislation for women27
public sector, women's growing militancy in99
social reforms within the confines of capitalism43 see also ACTU; BECTU; ETUC; GMB; TUC; Unions NSW
Treaty of Versailles (1919)43
Trebilcock, M. J.13
Trumper, R.227 n.
TUC (UK Trades Union Congress)146, 151, 153, 163 n., 205 n.
Tucker, E.71 n., 197, 200 n., 201 n., 207 n., 219
UEAPME (European Association of Craft, Small and Medium‐Sized Enterprises)195
UN (United Nations)13, 14, 65
anti‐discrimination policy67 see also Universal Declaration; also under following headings prefixed ‘UN’
UN Charter67, 70
UN Conventions24 n.
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979)69–70, 82
Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990)83, 84, 94 n., 225, 230
UN Economic and Social Council62
uncertainty2, 3, 19, 139, 196, 210, 213
classification of temporary agency workers205 n.
future employment prospects193
gender dimension of179
legal153, 202 n.
possibilities for remedying197
premium for143
reducing189
self‐employment188
workers especially affected by166, 180, 181, 182–3, 214
unemployment18, 21 n., 48, 53, 67, 158 n.
best understood by reference to social consequences71 n.
bouts of60, 157, 225
high73, 136, 215, 219, 227, 231
limiting costs associated with11
means of easing120
multiple periods of141
protection from the ills of4
rising135
self‐employment as a means of curbing204 n.
unemployment widespread58 see also ILO Conventions; ILO Recommendations
unemployment insurance/benefits12, 60–1, 67, 218
ensuring former employees retain access189
loss of188, 198
unfair competition37, 60
unfair dismissal162 n.
definitions of193
improved system117
protection against4, 6, 76, 107, 118, 125 n., 126, 128, 130, 158 n., 210, 211
qualifying requirements for125 n.
Unfair Dismissals (Amendment) Act (Ireland 1993)142
UNICE (Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of Europe)147, 148, 149
renamed BusinessEurope (2007)195
UNIEUROPA16, 147–8, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 235
unionization76, 91 n., 210 see also trade unions
Unions NSW108, 110, 111, 117, 121
United Kingdom, see Britain
United States15, 22 n., 35, 50 n., 51, 83, 121, 128, 130, 166
common‐law legal tests167
full‐time permanent employment74, 209, 210
health insurance212
ILO mandate43
immigrants23 n.
measuring total work238
minimum wage legislation33
part‐time employment98, 99, 100
periods of rest and holidays codified56
permanency6
regulations, non‐standard employment13
self‐employment170
SER65, 74–80, 91 n.
sex‐specific regulations34
temporary migrant work227 n.
union membership decline211
welfare benefits49 n.
women9, 36, 38, 41, 49 n.
working hours6, 30–1
(p.310) universal caregiver model222, 223, 224, 225
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948)67–8, 70, 94 n.
unpaid work4, 8, 12, 55, 60, 70, 82, 86, 88, 95, 107, 113, 118, 119, 121, 122, 219, 220, 223, 226
disproportionate responsibility for78, 100
distribution of97
equalization of103
hours spent per day in91–2 nn.
key components of238
nature of and time allocated to9
reorganization and reallocation of221
sex/gendered divisions of76
StatsCan GSS definition of238
women performing a greater share of77
Ursel, J.29–30
USBS (US Bureau of Statistics)90 n., 91 n., 211, 227 n. 236, 237, 239, 241
USDOL (United States Department of Labor)211
Vanderpool, Mary95
Victoria (Australia)29, 32, 186
Villa, P.21 n.
vocational training69
Vosko, Leah F.2, 5, 9, 21 n., 22 n., 23 n., 43, 53, 54, 65, 74, 90 n., 93 n., 100, 119, 121, 126, 130, 141, 142, 146, 148, 153, 157, 161 n., 197, 199, 200 n., 207, 219
wages2, 32–4, 61, 87, 91 n., 142, 159 n., 174
average145
basic102, 118, 132
children engaged in work for67
differential102
equivalent123 n.
gender inequality in211
inflation‐adjusted211
low45, 49 n., 100, 133, 162 n., 177, 211, 212
predictable59, 126
profit‐linked128
relative162 n.
stagnated211
Wagnerist model114
Walker, J. A.210
Walters, W.22 n.
Waltman, J.33, 34
Walzer, M.22 n.
Ward, K.99
Washington39, 45, 46
Watt, Robert J.51
Weinkopf, C.142, 143, 145, 161 n., 162 n.
Weir, A.223, 224
welfare benefits49 n.
Wembley Stadium163 n.
West Germany130
Western Canada29
Wheelwright, T.29
White Papers (EU)134, 135, 160 n.
white phosphorus41, 48
Whitworth, S.28, 49 n.
Wial, H.91 n., 121, 158 n.
Wikander, U.26, 38–9, 40, 42, 49 n., 50 n.
Wilhelm II, German emperor39
Wilkinson, F.14, 24 n., 158 n.
Williams, F.22 n.
Winqvist, K.92 n.
Winslow, A.45, 49 n.
Winslow, M. M.39, 45, 49 n.
Women's Cooperative Guild49 n.
Women's International League of Peace and Freedom44
women's labour force participation12, 28, 69, 106, 218, 219
after childbirth66
collective struggles97
exclusion from47
fulfilling maternal roles upon return37
governments sought to restrict36
importance to equality221
increasing rates120
limiting46
maternity benefits not designed to encourage47
rates in industrialized countries65, 76, 108, 209 see also ILO (International Protection)
Wong, L.227 n.
Woolner, E.34
work intensity2, 6
work organization128, 169, 175, 188
developments in54
flexible216
labour supply and3, 61
workers’ groups177, 178, 179, 180, 182
working conditions2, 69, 72, 87, 110, 123, 142, 171–2, 218, 232
basic152
commitment to improving148
decent207 n.
efforts to regulate134
exploitative32
(p.311)
floor of rights dealing with194, 206 n.
minimum153
safe38 see also European Foundation; PIACT
working time101, 127, 138, 149, 152, 154, 191
adjustments to120, 219–20
dichotomy between free time and100
reducing for all119
restructuring of5 see also hours of work; standardized working time
Workplace Relations Act (Australia 1996)112, 113, 114, 185, 186–7, 203 n., 204 n.
Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Bill (2005)114–17, 124 n.
Yeatman, A.225
Young, M.22 n.
Zaal, I.141, 145, 146, 162 n.
Zetkin, Clara39, 40