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Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-UpAn International Comparative Study$
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Hiroyuki Odagiri, Akira Goto, Atsushi Sunami, and Richard R. Nelson

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199574759

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574759.001.0001

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Knowledge Flows and Catching‐Up Industrialization in the Nordic Countries: The Roles of Patent Systems

Knowledge Flows and Catching‐Up Industrialization in the Nordic Countries: The Roles of Patent Systems

Chapter:
(p.63) 3 Knowledge Flows and Catching‐Up Industrialization in the Nordic Countries: The Roles of Patent Systems
Source:
Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up
Author(s):

Kristine Bruland (Contributor Webpage)

Keith Smith

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574759.003.0003

This chapter discusses the catch‐up experience of Nordic countries — Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland — which stretches back at least to the late eighteenth century, gathered force in the mid‐nineteenth century, and extended into the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The patent system began relatively early, which facilitated inward technology transfer in two ways: first, via foreign patenting in the Nordic region and, second, via patent systems (“imported patents”) that permitted Nordic citizens to appropriate foreign‐developed inventions. However, there were many methods of acquiring and developing intellectual property, including societies, foreign work experience, immigration, exhibitions, and industrial espionage, and many ways to protect it. The chapter thus emphasizes the broader dimensions of learning and the creation of knowledge assets, and therefore the need to set IPRs within a wide context of knowledge creation.

Keywords:   intellectual property, patent, catch‐up, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, immigration, espionage, learning

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