This chapter concludes the book by summarizing the country studies to answer three questions. First, what is needed for catch‐up and how can government policies contribute to it? Second, how has the intellectual property right regime, in particular patents, been related to catch‐up and how should it be? And third, how will the process of catch‐up be affected by the TRIPS agreement? The studies suggest that IPR does affect catch‐up but the effects vary significantly across industries, with pharmaceuticals clearly being the industry most affected by patents whereas, in other industries, it sometimes appears that patents hardly matter. IPR is only one of the factors that influence the speed of catch‐up and other policies, such as education policy, industrial policy, and trade and FDI policy, can be more important. Accordingly, TRIPS may affect some industries, most likely pharmaceuticals, in some countries but otherwise may have little effect.
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