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Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-UpAn International Comparative Study$
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Hiroyuki Odagiri, Akira Goto, Atsushi Sunami, and Richard R. Nelson

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199574759

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574759.001.0001

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The Accumulation of Capabilities in Indian Pharmaceuticals and Software: The Roles that Patents Did (and Did Not) Play

The Accumulation of Capabilities in Indian Pharmaceuticals and Software: The Roles that Patents Did (and Did Not) Play

Chapter:
(p.361) 11 The Accumulation of Capabilities in Indian Pharmaceuticals and Software: The Roles that Patents Did (and Did Not) Play
Source:
Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up
Author(s):

Bhaven N. Sampat (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574759.003.0011

This chapter discusses India. Following the 1972 patent law amendment that prohibited product patents in pharmaceuticals, new Indian pharmaceutical firms entered and old firms expanded, competing to reverse‐engineer bulk drugs. Also, two government pharmaceutical firms provided a training ground for scientists who later established private firms. Since the 1990s, some firms began to move away from imitation to innovation but, with the 2005 reform of the patent law to comply with TRIPS, the future of the pharmaceutical industry is yet unclear. In software, the growth was supported by the liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s that made the import of hardware and multinationals' investment easier, and by the presence of a large pool of technically trained engineers. Unlike pharmaceuticals, however, patents were generally not a big factor.

Keywords:   India, pharmaceutical, software, patent, TRIPS

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