This book is an updated, revised, and extended version of my doctoral thesis, defended at King's College London on 21 February 2008. Back when I started my PhD in September 2003, European sanctions against private individuals were a new and interesting yet unexplored phenomenon. At that time, the only consideration of such sanctions was in the form of an order of the Court of First Instance (CFI) whereby the Court had rejected an application for interim relief for failure to establish ‘urgency’. Today, six years later, the CFI and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) have given several landmark judgments in relation to individual sanctions and nearly every legal scholar interested in European law has come across individual sanctions at one point or another. Individual sanctions are a counter-terrorist policy that raises so many constitutional questions, including questions surrounding the protection of human rights, that they undoubtedly deserve in-depth treatment. While the amount of academic work on this subject has exploded in the past years, this book makes its contribution by comprehensively analysing case-law on individual sanctions and addressing fundamental questions arising from the adoption of individual sanctions.
I am indebted to many people who have contributed to this book in various ways. The first person I would like to thank is my PhD supervisor Piet Eeckhout. Not only do I owe him gratitude for his invaluable comments and his generous support during the process of writing my doctoral thesis, but he was also the person who encouraged me to apply for funding for a PhD project when I was doing my master's degree at the College of Europe in Bruges. For all their time and advice during my time in London, I would further like to thank Andrea Biondi and Itai Rabinowitz.
Without the full funding of the Centre of European Law at King's College London I would not have been in the position to write a doctoral thesis. Further financial support has then enabled me to turn my thesis into this book. A research grant of the School of Law at the University of Surrey, Guildford, allowed me to spend the summer of 2008 at the Max-Planck Institute in Heidelberg and at the European University Institute in Florence.
(p.viii) I am greatly indebted to Deirdre Curtin for giving me the opportunity to revise and extend my PhD thesis into this book. Further, I have benefited substantially from the supportive and stimulating research environment at the Amsterdam Centre of European Law and Governance at the University of Amsterdam (ACELG).
At various stages this book has been subject to critical scrutiny which has been extremely fruitful. I am grateful to Marise Cremona and Takis Tridimas, my PhD examiners, who engaged closely with my writing and gave me insightful comments and suggestions that contributed to the final version of this book. I further wish to thank Ester Herlin-Karnell, Stephan Hollenberg, Joana Mendes, Ronald van Ooik, Itai Rabinowitz, Jan-Herman Reestman, Anniek de Ruijter, and Jure Vidmar for reading and commenting on earlier drafts.
Finally I owe the greatest gratitude to my parents, Margret and Norbert Eckes, to whom I dedicate this book, for raising me in a supportive environment that enabled me to make my own choices in life and for their particular support in those moments where it was most needed.
Amsterdam, The Netherlands