Expressions and Foundations
Inspired by the anthropologist Douglas, models of democracy are likened in this chapter to beauty ideals that inspire different ‘cleansing rituals’, polishing up certain forms and rubbing out others. To understand such cleansing rituals, Douglas teaches, one should first get a grip on the notions of order that inspire such cleansing, for: ‘dirt is matter out of place’. Whether something is defined as unclean, untidy, improper – or not – depends upon what is deemed to be in order, in place, in line – or not. This chapter sketches the notions of order associated with the four basic models of democracy at different levels of aggregation. The chapter shows which social and political cultures, and which patterns of leadership and citizenship, are ideal‐typically in line with the different models of democracy. It is stressed that the resulting framework is an ideal‐typical framework, meant to map rather than mirror reality. Ideal types do not replace but help to grasp real types of democracy, as shown in subsequent chapters.
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