The many different imaging modes and experiment types that modern AFMs can carry out explain its popularity. They transform a high‐resolution microscope into a versatile measurements tool that can determine a very wide range of sample properties with nanometre resolution. This chapter describes the differences between the various imaging modes available, such as contact, non‐contact, and intermittent‐contact modes. The theory and practices, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each mode are highlighted. Furthermore, non‐topographical modes, which can measure mechanical, (bio)chemical, magnetic (MFM), electrical (EFM) and thermal properties, are discussed. Techniques such as force spectroscopy allow the AFM to directly measure the force of interaction between single molecules. Other AFM techniques can even be used to modify samples, and then image the results. Examples of the use of all modes are given, to help the reader to understand their potential.
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