We introduce a new paradigm in electronics, where information is carried by electron spin in addition to its charge. Spin polarization, a function of the density of states of the majority (↑) and minority (↓) bands at the Fermi level, EF, and their Fermi velocities, determines the details of spin transport, including injection, accumulation, and diffusion lengths. Such magnetoelectronics is broadly presented in two categories: (1) metal spintronics that helped pioneer fundamental developments in the field, subsequently generating a number of important applications in information storage, automobile and biomedical technologies; and (2) semiconductor spintronics, that is rich in fundamental science with exciting possibilities for radically new applications. In addition, we discuss a variety of phenomena including spin transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect (SHE), the related inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE), the spin-Seebeck effect, spin caloritronics and topological insulators, and conclude with a number of two- and three-terminal devices.
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